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Table 2 The effects of LEB, income per capita, fertility, population density, CO2 emissions, HIV prevalence, and time on LEB decadal gains, 1950–2009, Fixed effects model

From: The slowing pace of life expectancy gains since 1950

  LEB decade gains
Lowest Stratum (LEB < 51) Stratum II (51 ≤ LEB < 61) Stratum III (61 ≤ LEB < 71) Highest Stratum (LEB ≥ 71) Total
Decade 1960–69 −4.171*** (0.473) −4.799*** (0.597) −4.467*** (0.308) −2.961*** (0.181) −5.539*** (0.149)
Decade 1970–79 −6.385*** (0.597) −7.567*** (0.644) −5.657*** (0.377) −1.982*** (0.183) −7.449*** (0.189)
Decade 1980–89 −8.062*** (0.718) − 10.54*** (0.687) − 6.439*** (0.450) − 1.693*** (0.194) −9.055*** (0.238)
Decade 1990–99 −11.79*** (0.788) − 12.31*** (0.735) −7.633*** (0.504) − 1.918*** (0.220) − 10.34*** (0.292)
Decade 2000–09 − 8.491*** (0.982) − 11.42*** (0.803) − 7.283*** (0.585) −1.893*** (0.264) − 10.01*** (0.352)
Life Expectancy at Birth 2.004*** (0.132) 1.559*** (0.0812) 0.710*** (0.0903) 0.608*** (0.0693) 3.529*** (0.0753)
GDP per capita, 2005, PPP $ 0.496*** (0.0940) 0.129** (0.0634) 0.130* (0.0788) −0.0311 (0.0587) −0.0520 (0.0439)
Population density per km2 −0.502** (0.195) − 0.553*** (0.183) − 0.882*** (0.0935) −0.584*** (0.0492) −1.496*** (0.100)
CO2 in tons per capita 0.0341 (0.110) −0.0484 (0.0633) −0.00566 (0.0706) − 0.169*** (0.0295) −0.175*** (0.0415)
Total Fertility Rate −0.0836 (0.107) −0.0781 (0.110) 0.107 (0.0893) 0.287*** (0.0372) −0.0918* (0.0548)
HIV Prevalence −0.355** (0.147) −0.484*** (0.0910) − 0.00773 (0.0747) −0.0821** (0.0400) − 0.427*** (0.0612)
Constant 8.956*** (0.543) 12.95*** (0.673) 9.408*** (0.404) 4.245*** (0.204) 10.93*** (0.233)
Observations 685 1460 1597 1908 6533
R-squared 0.551 0.552 0.337 0.321 0.478
Nro. of countries 34 63 81 63 139
Country Fixed Effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1