Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author Publication year Region Study design Study name Subjects (cases) Sex Mean/median age (years) Follow up period (years) Diet assessment Exposure Quantity OR/RR (95% CI) Ascertainment method of hip fracture Adjustment for confounders
Feskanich 2014 USA cohort study The Nurses’ Health Study (NHS); the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) 96,927 (1716) M/F F (30–55) M (40–75) 22 FFQ Milk ≥ 4 vs. 1 glass/day Males 1.21(0.86–1.64) Females 1.01(0.78–1.31) Self -reporting Age, questionnaire cycle, adult milk consumption, calcium supplements, vitamin D supplements, retinol from supplements, total protein, alcohol and caffeine intakes, total energy intake, physical activity, BMI, smoking, use of thiazide diuretics, use of furosemide diuretics and oral steroids (men only], use of hormone replacement therapy, incident diagnoses of osteoporosis and cancer, teenage measures
Michaëlsson 2014 Sweden cohort study The Swedish Mammography Cohort; the Cohort of Swedish Men 106,772 (5425) M/F 56.5 (39–79) F: 20.1 M:11.2 FFQ Milk ≥ 600 vs. < 200 g/day Males: 1.01 (0.85–1.20)
Females: 1.60(1.39–1.84)
Registers Age, BMI, height, total energy intake, total alcohol intake, healthy dietary pattern, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, ever use of cortisone, educational level, living alone, physical activity level estimated as metabolic equivalents, smoking status, and Charlson comorbidity index; for women only, use of estrogen replacement therapy and nulliparity
           Yogurt ≥ 400 vs. < 1 g/day Males: 0.75 (0.63–0.90)
Females: 0.70 (0.57–0.86)
           Cheese ≥ 60 vs. < 20 g/day Males: 0.75 (0.62–0.92)
Females: 0.64 (0.55–0.74)
Sahni 2014 USA cohort study The Framingham Original Cohort 764 (97) M/F 76.9 (68–96) 11.6 Validated FFQ Milk ≥ 7 vs. ≤ 1 servings/week 0.58 (0.31–1.06) Self-reporting confirmed by review of medical records and radiographic and operative reports Age, sex, weight, height, total energy intake, current cigarette smoking, calcium supplement use, vitamin D supplement use
Yogurt > 0 vs. 0 servings/week 1.09 (0.65–1.81)
Cheese > 1 vs. ≤ 1 servings/week 0.72 (0.48–1.08)
Cream ≥ 3 vs. < 1 servings/week 1.04 (0.59–1.86)
Benetou 2011 European cohort study The Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study 29,122 (275) M/F 64.3 (60–86) 8 Validated FFQ Total dairy products Yes vs. no 1.02 (0.93–1.12) Both registers and self-reporting Sex, age, BMI, height, educational level, smoking status, physical activity at leisure, supplement use, history of diabetes at enrolment, total energy intake
Feart 2013 France cohort study The Three-City (3C) study 1482 (57) M/F 75.9 (67.7–94.9) 8 FFQ and a 24-h dietary recall Dairy products Highest vs. lowest category 1.05 (0.60–1.85) Self-reporting Each individual food group component of the Mediterranean diet score, age, gender, physical activity, total energy intake, educational level, marital status, BMI, osteoporosis treatment, calcium and/or vitamin D treatment
Milk Highest vs. lowest category 0.86 (0.50–1.49)
Yogurt Highest vs. lowest category 0.90 (0.50–1.61)
Cheese Highest vs. lowest category 0.78 (0.44–1.39)
Cumming 1997 USA cohort study Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF Study) 9704 (306) F 71 (65+) 6.6 Validated FFQ Milk ≥ 3 vs. rarely/never glasses/day 0.90 (0.50–1.70) Self-reporting Age, clinic, weight, history of osteoporosis, history of fractures since age 50, fall in past 12 months, protein intake, caffeine intake, recreational physical activity, take walks for exercise, impaired low frequency contrast sensitivity, estrogen replacement therapy, thiazide use, use of calcium and Vitamin D supplements, use of Turns antacid tablets
Fujiwara 1997 Japan cohort study the Adult Health Study (AHS) 4573 (55) M/F 58.5 14 Standardized questionnaire Milk ≥ 5 vs. ≤ 1 times/week 0.54 (0.25–1.07) Registers Age, alcohol, BMI, prevalent vertebral fracture, number of children, age at menarche
Meyer 1997 Norway cohort study the National Health Screening study 39,787 (213) M/F 47.1 (42.9–65.9) 11.4 FFQ Milk ≥ 5 vs. < 1 glasses/day Males: 0.46 (0.22–0.98)
Females: 0.83 (0.44–1.56)
Self-reporting confirmed by review of medical records and radiographic and operative reports Age, body height, BMI, self-reported physical activity at work and during leisure time, diabetes mellitus, disability pension, marital status, smoking
Owusu 1997 USA cohort study The Health Professionals Follow-up Study 43,063 (56) M 54 (40–75) 8 Validated FFQ Milk 2.5 vs. ≤1 glass/week 0.97 (0.39–2.42) Self-reporting Age, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake
Kanis 2004 Europe,
Australia, and Canada
Meta-analysis of cohort study The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS);The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos);The Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES);The Rotterdam Study;The Sheffield Study;The Gothenburg study 39,563 (413) M/F 66.7(58.9–80.0) 3–8 NR Milk 'Highest vs. lowest category of consumption Males:0.66 (0.39–1.12)
Females: 0.92 (0.69–1.22)
Both registers and self-reporting NR
Jha 2010 India case-control study NR 200
(100)
M/F 65.2 NR Standardized questionnaire Milk, > 1 vs. ≤ 1 glass/day 0.30 (0.13–0.72) Self-reporting NR
Cheese > 1 vs. ≤ 1 servings/week 0.48 (0.24–0.93)
Yogurt > 2 vs. ≤ 2 cups/week 0.77 (0.39–1.51)
Lan 2010 Taiwan case-control study NR 725 (228) M/F (60+) NR Standardized questionnaire Milk ≥ 6 vs. none or <1 drink/week 0.58 (0.37–0.91) Self-reporting Socio-demographic, disease history, self-assessed health, anthropometry and health habits, diet habits, injury-related experience, physical functioning, cognitive and other functioning, physical performance, female reproductive history, bone mineral density
Jitapunkul 2001 Thai Chinese case-control study NR 120 (60) F 71.4 NR Structured questionnaire Milk Yes vs. no 0.26 (0.09–0.76) Self-reporting No regular intake of milk, low number of pregnancies, thin body appearance, low serum calcium
Kanis 1999 Southern Europe case-control study The MEDOS study 1862 (730) M 74 NR Standardized questionnaire Milk Highest vs. lowest category of consumption 0.82 (0.61–1.11) Registers BMI, recreational physical activity, consumption of tea, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, smoking, sunlight exposure
Cheese Yes vs. no 0.75 (0.49–1.14)
Johnell 1995 Southern Europe case-control study The MEDOS Study 5618
(2086)
F 77.8 NR Standardized questionnaire Milk Highest vs. lowest category 0.71 (0.58–0.87) Registers Mental score, BMI, menarche, menopause, sunlight exposure, tea consumption
Tavani 1995 Italy case–control study NR 960 (241) F 63.3 (45–74) NR Standardized questionnaire Milk > 7 vs. < 7 drinks/week 1.00 (0.60–1.60) Registers Age, education, BMI, estrogen replacement therapy
Cheese > 6 vs. < 4 portions/week 1.00 (0.70–1.50)
Cumming 1994 Australia case-control study NR 416 (209) M/F (65–100) NR Standardized questionnaire Dairy product Highest vs. lowest category 1.70 (0.50–5.40) Registers Age, sex, country of birth, mental state score, psychotropic drug use, smoker status, work in the house and garden, weight
Nieves 1992 USA case-control study NR 329 (161) F (50–103) NR Validated FFQ Milk ≥ 7 vs. no glasses/week 1.10 (0.63–1.94) Registers Hospital site, age and BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); F, Female; M, male; FFQ, food frequency questionnaire; NR, not reported