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Table 1 Expected outcomes at different levels of programme implementation, and potential mechanisms and factors involved [57, 63]

From: Implementation of health promotion programmes in schools: an approach to understand the influence of contextual factors on the process?

Expected outcome at district stakeholders / community level
Implementation of the training in schools, and support to school staff
Potential factors involved Potential mechanisms
Institutional support a
Involvement and support of the municipality
Involvement, support and ownership of the community
Engagement in community networks
Stability in the team
Stability in administrative structure and procedures
Importance given to HP
Accession to the programme
Perception of self-efficacyb to carry out training and support to school staff
Competency development c
Partnership work e
Reflexivity and sharing of experiences
Expected outcome at school level
Development of a health promoting approach, improvement of the school climate, improvement of home / school relationships
Potential factors involved Potential mechanisms
Partnership work e
Implication of families
Institutional will
Support from local stakeholders
Training means and resources
Involvement of the community
Shared perception of HP
Integration of HP in the “School Project” (School yearly policy pland)
Presence of a leader
Development of collective work g
Expected outcome at school staff level in local schools
Development of health promotion practices, promotion of partnership work, empowerment
Potential factors involved Potential mechanisms
Size of the implementation area
Inclusion of training and support
Collective work g
Institutional support a
HP integrated in school project d
Training means and resources
Existence of HP approach within the school
Perceived needs of children
Perception of HP h
Capacity to integrate HP in their practice f
Accession to the programme
Development of personal skills
Perceived self-efficacy b
Capacity to use resources
Motivation and interest
Teachers’ empowerment
Leadership 1
Expected outcome at children’s / pupil level
Enhancement of well-being, promotion of social / physical / emotional health
Potential factors involved Potential mechanisms
School characteristics
Staff perception of HP h
Capacity of staff to integrate HP in their practice f
Duration and content of training (inclusion of support)
Improvement of home / school relationship
Collective work g
Development of HP whole school approach
Development of HP practice
Development of a supportive environment (psycho-social and physical aspects)
Implementation of health education activities
Development of personal life skills
Knowledge, competency development c
Critical thinking
Involvement of children in health promotion projects
  1. HP Health Promotion
  2. Some of the contextual factors presented here are found at different levels of the implementation process in school settings (e.g. institutional supportaat district and staff levels, perceived self-efficacyb, competency developmentc, etc.). Some of the contextual factors are found in the “potential mechanism” category (e.g. integration in school projectd, partnership worke, capacity of staff to integrate health promotion in their practicef, development of collective workg, perception of health promotionh, etc.) as well as the “potential factors” category