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Table 2 Quality assessment of active school transportation interventions

From: Effectiveness of active school transport interventions: a systematic review and update

Lead author (year) Selection bias Study design Control for confounders Blinding Data collection Withdrawals and dropouts Global rating Global rating without blinding
Buckley (2013) [fall event] Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak
Buckley (2013) [spring event] Weak Moderate Strong Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak
Buliung (2011) Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak
Bungum (2014) Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak
Christiansen (2014) Strong Strong Strong Weak Moderate Moderate Moderate Strong
Coombes (2016) Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak
Crawford (2013) [pilot] Weak Strong Strong Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak
Crawford (2013) [program] Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak
Ducheyne (2014) Moderate Strong Strong Weak Weak Strong Weak Moderate
Goodman (2016) Moderate Moderate Strong Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak
Gutierrez (2014) Moderate Strong Strong Weak Weak Strong Weak Moderate
Henderson (2013) Moderate Moderate Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak
Hinckson (2011a) Moderate Moderate Weak Weak Moderate Moderate Weak Moderate
Hinckson (2011b) Moderate Moderate Weak Weak Moderate Strong Weak Moderate
Hoelscher (2016) Moderate Moderate Strong Weak Strong Strong Moderate Strong
Hunter (2015) Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak
Johnson (2016) [Bikeability] Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak N/A Weak Weak
Johnson (2016) [CensusAtSchool] Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak N/A Weak Weak
Mammen (2014a) Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak N/A Weak Weak
Mammen (2014b) Moderate Moderate Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak Weak
McDonald (2013) Weak Moderate Weak Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak
McDonald (2014) Weak Moderate Strong Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak
McMinn (2012) Moderate Moderate Weak Weak Strong Strong Weak Moderate
Mendoza (2011) Moderate Strong Strong Weak Strong Strong Moderate Strong
Østergaard (2015) Weak Moderate Weak Weak Weak Moderate Weak Weak
Sayers (2012) Weak Moderate Strong Weak Strong N/A Weak Moderate
Stewart (2014) Moderate Moderate Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak
Vanwolleghem (2014) Weak Moderate Weak Weak Strong Strong Weak Weak
Villa-Gonzalez (2016) Moderate Moderate Strong Weak Weak Weak Weak Weak
Xu (2015) Weak Strong Strong Weak Weak Strong Weak Weak
  1. Quality assessment was conducted with a modified version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool for quantitative studies (EPHPP, 2003), which is provided in Additional file 1. Following EPHPP guidelines, studies with no weak ratings are rated “strong”, studies with one weak rating are rated “moderate” and studies with more than one weak rating are rated “weak”. Considering that blinding of participants may not be feasible in the context of AST interventions, global ratings with and without the blinding component of the EPHPP are presented