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Table 7 Multivariate analysis: Risk indicators associated with oral diseases or being obese

From: Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study

Groups of the Clinical Oral and General Health Index (COGHI) Oral disease Obesity Oral disease & Obesity
Sex: girl vs boy 0.81 (0.55–1.21) 0.80 (0.52–1.22) 0.82 (0.52–1.29)
Geographical area:
 North vs South
 Islands vs South
3.27 (1.98–5.40)***
2.20 (1.09–4.43)*
0.78 (0.41–1.47)
0.61 (0.24–1.54)
1.87 (1.04–3.38)*
1.39 (0.59–3.28)
Cultural ethnic group
 Melanesian vs others 1.23 (0.59–2.59) 1.91 (0.89–4.09) p = 0.09 5.19 (1.15–23.50) *
 Caledonian vs others 1.58 (0.79–3.17) 1.63 (0.78–3.39) 9.20 (2.11–40.08) **
 Polynesian vs others 1.90 (0.84–4.30) 2.48 (1.11–5.55) * 16.81 (3.71–76.20)***
Type of school 0.79 (0.50–1.27) 0.79 (0.46–1.35) 0.99 (0.59–1.68)
Private vs Public
Toothbrushing frequency 1.89 (1.26–2.83)** 1.09 (0.70–1.69) 1.75 (1.10–2.78)*
<1/day vs ≥1/day
Smoking habits
 Already smoked vs Never 1.41 (0.76–2.63) 0.95 (0.45–2.01) 1.72 (0.88–3.37)
Use of sweet drinks
 Yes vs No 1.11 (0.66–1.87) 0.77 (0.49–1.21) 1.10 (0.70–1.74)
Dental attendance 1.07 (0 .63–1.83) 0.75 (0.43–1.32) 1.59 (0.83–3.04)
Already visited a dentist vs never
Prevention at school 0.85 (0.56–1.27) 0.96 (0.62–1.50) 1.20 (0.74–1.94)
No vs Already experienced
Propensity score for FU < 6 2.14 (0.70–6.44) 8.49 (2.11–34.15)** 7.01 (1.49–33.00)*
Dental anxiety
Anxiety vs No anxiety (≤3)
1.05 (0.69–1.59) 0.82 (0.51–1.29) 1.24 (0.78–1.99)
Lunch at school 0.95 (0.50–1.83) 0.93 (0.39–2.26) 0.61 (0.26–1.43)
No vs Yes
  1. Mixed-effects multinomial ordinal logistic regression models
  2. The groups Oral disease, Obesity, Oral disease & Obesity are compared with the Healthy group
  3. The school and investigator effects are taken into account for each comparison
  4. ***P < 10–4, **P < 0.01, *P ≤ 0.05