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Table 3 Cox proportional hazards models for the effect of socioeconomic status, reserve capacity variables and school achievement on mortality in Finland, Girls, Hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates

From: Adolescent reserve capacity, socioeconomic status and school achievement as predictors of mortality in Finland - a longitudinal study

Predictor variables in adolescence Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
Family SES (parents’ education)
 Higher 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Secondary 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.9 (0.5–1.5)
 Basic or lower 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 1.0 (0.6–1.8)
Perceived health
 Chronic disease
  No 1.0 n.s. n.s.
  Yes 1.2 (0.7–2.0)   
 Perceived stress symptoms
  None 1.0   
  1/week 0.8 (0.5–1.4) n.s. n.s.
  2–3/week 1.3 (0.8–2.1)   
  4–8/week 1.5 (0.9–2.5)   
 Self-rated health
  Very good 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Average or good 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 1.4 (0.9–2.1)
  Poor 4.5 (2.1–9.6)** 5.2 (2.5–10.6)** 4.5 (2.2–9.4)**
Health-promoting behaviour
 Physical activity
  Very active efficient exerciser 1.0   
  Active efficient exerciser 1.9 (1.0–3.5)* n.s. n.s.
  Occasional or low efficient exerciser 1.7 (0.9–3.2)   
  Does not exercise 2.0 (1.0–3.8)*   
 Regular tooth brushing
  Several times/day 1.0   
  Once/day 0.9 (0.6–1.3) n.s. n.s.
  1–5 times/week or less 1.3 (0.7–2.3)   
Social support
 Nuclear family (with both parents)
  Yes 1.0 n.s n.s.
  No 1.2 (0.8–1.7)   
 Talking about issues to father
  Easy 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Difficult 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 1.3 (0.8–1.9)
  Very difficult/No father 1.7 (1.0–2.8)* 1.8 (1.1–2.7)* 1.7 (1.1–2.6)*
 Talking about issues to mother
  Easy 1.0   
  Difficult 1.0 (0.6–1.6) n.s n.s.
  Very difficult/No mother 1.9 (1.1–3.5)*   
 Talking about issues to friends
  Easy 1.0   
  Difficult 1.1 (0.6–1.9) n.s n.s.
  Very difficult/No friends 0.4 (0.6–3.1)   
School achievement
 Highest 1.0   1.0
 2nd highest 1.0 (0.6–1.6)   1.0 (0.6–1.6)
 2nd lowest 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.6)
 Lowest 2.8 (1.7–4.7)**   2.4 (1.4–4.1)**
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.001; n.s. not significant
  2. aModel 1. All predictor variables bModel 2. All significant reserve capacity variables from Model 1 and family SES. cModel 3. Model 2 variables and school achievement