Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Cox proportional hazards models for the effect of socioeconomic status, reserve capacity variables and school achievement on mortality in Finland, Boys, Hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates

From: Adolescent reserve capacity, socioeconomic status and school achievement as predictors of mortality in Finland - a longitudinal study

Predictor variables in adolescence Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
Family SES (parents’ education)
 Higher 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Secondary 1.6 (1.1–2.4)* 1.5 (1.0–2.1)* 1.3 (0.9–1.9)
 Basic or lower 2.2 (1.5–3.3)** 1.9 (1.3–2.9)** 1.6 (1.1–2.4)*
Perceived health
 Chronic disease
  No 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Yes 1.5 (1.1–2.1)** 1.6 (1.2–2.1)* 1.6 (1.2–2.1)**
 Perceived stress symptoms
  None 1.0 1.0 1.0
  1/week 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
  2–3/week 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
  4–8/week 1.8 (1.3–2.6)** 1.7 (1.2–2.4)* 1.7 (1.2–2.3)**
 Self-rated health
  Very good 1.0   
  Average or good 1.2 (0.9–1.5) n.s. n.s.
  Poor 1.8 (0.9–3.3)   
Health-promoting behaviour
 Physical activity
  Very active efficient exerciser 1.0   
  Active efficient exerciser 1.0 (0.7–1.3) n.s. n.s.
  Occasional/low efficient exerciser 1.0 (0.7–1.3)   
  Does not exercise 1.3 (1.0–1.8)   
 Regular tooth brushing
  Several times/day 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Once/day 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.1 (0.8–1.6)
  1–5 times/week or less 1.9 (1.3–2.6)** 1.7 (1.2–2.3)* 1.5 (1.0–2.0)*
Social support
 Nuclear family (with both parents)
  Yes 1.0 1.0 1.0
  No 1.5 (1.2–1.9)* 1.4 (1.1–1.8)* 1.4 (1.0–1.7)*
 Talking about issues to father
  Easy 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Difficult 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.2 (1.0–1.6) 1.2 (1.0–1.6)
  Very difficult/No father 1.6 (1.1–2.2)** 1.6 (1.2–2.1)* 1.6 (1.2–2.1)**
 Talking about issues to mother
  Easy 1.0   
  Difficult 1.2 (0.9–1.6) n.s. n.s.
  Very difficult/No mother 1.2 (0.7–1.8)   
 Talking about issues to friends
  Easy 1.0   
  Difficult 1.0 (0.8–1.3) n.s. n.s
  Very difficult/No friends 1.4 (0.9–2.1)   
School achievement
 Highest 1.0   1.0
 2nd highest 1.7 (1.1–2.6)*   1.6 (1.0–2.4)*
 2nd lowest 2.4 (1.6–3.6)** 2.0 (1.3–3.1)**
 Lowest 3.1 (2.0–4.7)**   2.3 (1.4–3.5)**
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.001; n.s. not significant
  2. aModel 1. All predictor variables bModel 2. All significant reserve capacity variables from Model 1 and family SES. cModel 3. Model 2 variables and school achievement