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Table 4 Associations estimated between continuous Walk Score and cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusted for individual variables, neighborhood variables and risk factors related to cardiometabolic outcomes

From: Neighborhood walk score and selected Cardiometabolic factors in the French RECORD cohort study

Cardiometabolic outcomes N β 95% CI ICC Null. ICC Adj.
Body Mass Index 5971 -0.010 -0.019 to −0.002 0.042 0.027
Waist circumference 5697 -0.031 -0.054 to −0.008 0.031 0.018
Systolic blood pressure 5883 -0.030 -0.063 to +0.004 0.016 0.009
Diastolic blood pressure 5883 -0.028 -0.047 to −0.008 0.018 0.011
Resting heart rate 5922 -0.026 -0.046 to −0.005 -b -b
Recreational walkinga 5987 +0.73 + 0.37 to +1.10 0.008 -b
  1. Abbreviations: ICC Null Intra-class Correlation Coefficient for the null model (only age and gender), ICC Adj Intra-class Correlation Coefficient, after adjustment for Walk Score and individual, neighborhood factors, and risk factors of the cardiometabolic outcomes (except recreational walking). Walk score was expressed as a continuous score ranging from 0 to 100 in the residential neighborhood. The variables of BMI (in kg/m2), waist circumference (in centimeter), recreational walking (in minutes/week of walking), and resting heart rate (in beats/min) were expressed as continuous variables. SBP and DBP (in mmHg) were expressed as continuous variables with 10 mmHg added to the observed SBP values and with 3.24 mmHg added to the observed DBP values for the participants on antihypertensive treatment. Multilevel linear regression models were estimated after excluding individuals with missing values for Walk Score, for census block group neighborhoods, and for each cardiometabolic outcome
  2. aMultilevel linear regression models were estimated after adjusting for individual and neighborhood variables bIn certain models, the between-neighborhood variance could not be estimated after adjustment, possibly due to the very low level of clustering