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Table 5 Associations between fast food consumption and health outcomes among Chinese children (n = 1626)a

From: Fast food consumption and its associations with obesity and hypertension among children: results from the baseline data of the Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities

  Obesity Central obesity Hypertension
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
1) Western FFC
 Times of FFC per week (vs. 0)
  1–2 0.96 (0.65–1.41) 0.92 (0.68–1.26) 1.17 (0.78–1.75)
   ≥ 3 0.89 (0.53–1.49) 0.99 (0.66–1.49) 0.68 (0.35–1.31)
Child factors
Age 0.92 (0.84–1.00) 0.95 (0.88–1.03) 1.33 (1.15–1.52)***
Boy (vs. girl) 2.63 (1.79–3.89) *** 3.15 (2.31–4.31)*** 1.21 (0.81–1.81)
City (vs. Beijing)
 Shanghai 0.95 (0.57–1.60) 1.29 (0.78–2.12) 0.81 (0.29–2.27)
 Nanjing 0.75 (0.43–1.29) 0.97 (0.58–1.62) 1.73 (0.64–4.66)
 Xi’an 0.95 (0.55–1.64) 0.78 (0.45–1.34) 0.89 (0.32–2.49)
Maternal factors
BMI 1.11 (1.06–1.17)*** 1.12 (1.07–1.17)*** 1.09 (1.03–1.15)**
Education level (vs. College or above)
 Elementary school or below 1.05 (0.66–1.67) 1.05 (0.71–1.53) 0.81 (0.46–1.44)
 Middle, high or vocational school 1.71 (1.12–2.61)* 1.43 (1.00–2.03)* 1.34 (0.83–2.15)
2) Chinese FFC
 Times of FFC per week (vs. 0)
  1–2 0.97 (0.68–1.40) 0.94 (0.70–1.26) 0.67 (0.44–1.02)
   ≥ 3 1.21 (0.50–2.95) 0.97 (0.46–2.07) 0.92 (0.30–2.84)
Child factors
Age 0.92 (0.84–1.00) 0.96 (0.88–1.03) 1.34 (1.17–1.54)***
Boy (vs. girl) 2.64 (1.79–3.89)*** 3.16 (2.31–4.32)*** 1.24 (0.83–1.85)
City (vs. Beijing)
 Shanghai 0.96 (0.57–1.61) 1.29 (0.78–2.13) 0.81 (0.28–2.32)
 Nanjing 0.75 (0.43–1.29) 0.96 (0.57–1.62) 1.71 (0.62–4.71)
 Xi’an 0.96 (0.56–1.66) 0.77 (0.45–1.34) 0.89 (0.31–2.55)
Maternal factors
BMI 1.11 (1.06–1.17)*** 1.12 (1.07–1.17)*** 1.09 (1.03–1.14)**
Education level (vs. College or above)
 Elementary school or below 1.03 (0.65–1.65) 1.04 (0.71–1.52) 0.80 (0.45–1.43)
 Middle, high or vocational school 1.70 (1.11–2.60)* 1.43 (1.00–2.03)* 1.33 (0.83–2.14)
  1. Abbreviations: FFC fast food consumption, OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. aBased on mixed models; bold indicates P < 0.05; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.0001