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Table 2 Multinomial probit model

From: Do objective neighbourhood characteristics relate to residents’ preferences for certain sports locations? A cross-sectional study using a discrete choice modelling approach

  Model 1 – raw analyses Model 2 – adjusted analyses
Public space Sports club Other sports facility Public space Sports club Other sports facility
Ref = non-participants B SE B SE B SE B SE B SE B SE
Constant −-4.019 0.699 −-4.165 0.837 −-4.092 0.761 −-4.377 0.738 −-4.090 0.939 −-4.469 0.813
Physical environmental characteristics a
Roads −-0.032 0.064 −-0.033 0.064 −-0.024 0.064 −-0.020 0.067 −-0.024 0.068 −-0.012 0.066
Facilities 0.057 0.055 0.054 0.054 0.045 0.055 0.046 0.056 0.043 0.056 0.032 0.056
Green space 0.034 ** 0.006 0.028 * 0.009 0.034 ** 0.006 0.034 ** 0.006 0.028 * 0.010 0.034 ** 0.007
Blue space 0.650 ** 0.081 0.638 ** 0.091 0.652 ** 0.081 0.637 ** 0.082 0.625 ** 0.091 0.639 ** 0.082
Number of sports facilities 0.030 * 0.010 0.027 * 0.011 0.032 * 0.011 0.031 * 0.011 0.028 * 0.012 0.033 * 0.011
Socio environmental characteristics b
Urbanity (ref. = rural)
 Hardly – moderately urbanized −-0.677 0.359 −-0.598 0.379 −-0.681 0.356 −-0.740 * 0.359 −-0.654 0.379 −-0.731 * 0.355
 Strongly - extremely urbanized −-0.779 * 0.357 −-0.758 * 0.371 −-0.759 * 0.356 −-0.825 * 0.360 −-0.825 * 0.374 −-0.800 * 0.359
Neighbourhood safety (ref. = below nat. average)
 About national average −-0.117 0.504 −-0.039 0.508 −-0.084 0.497 −-0.110 0.517 −-0.004 0.526 −-0.078 0.509
 Above national average 0.607 0.542 0.840 0.543 0.658 0.534 0.601 0.550 0.872 0.556 0.647 0.542
Neighbourhood SES (ref. = below nat. average)
 About national average 0.131 0.501 0.147 0.501 0.078 0.496 0.051 0.504 0.046 0.510 −-0.008 0.499
 Above national average 0.430 0.519 0.363 0.522 0.385 0.509 0.304 0.534 0.199 0.538 0.260 0.524
Socio-demographic factors
Age (in years)        0.002 0.005 −-0.007 0.006 0.001 0.005
Female        −-0.098 0.132 −-0.098 0.127 −-0.007 0.145
Children living at home        −-0.018 0.143 0.202 0.166 0.021 0.139
Education (ref. = low)
 Middle        0.251 0.156 0.309 0.179 0.277 0.157
 High        0.478 * 0.163 0.514 * 0.194 0.463 * 0.166
Employed        0.119 0.128 −-0.009 0.143 0.103 0.126
Error structures
 Public Space – Sports club 0.647 0.560      0.617 0.596     
 Public Space – Other sports facility 1.005 ** 0.066      1.000 * 0.082     
 Sports club – Sports club 0.819 0.575      0.852 0.543     
 Sports club – Other sports facility 0.139 0.296      0.139 0.293     
 Other sports facility – Other sports facility 0.189 0.353      0.212 0.381     
Model fit
 Log-likelihood −-1276.7       −-1249.9      
 McFadden R2 0.22117       0.23752      
 Chisquare 725.12       778.73      
  1. aWithin a 2,000 metre buffer around the home. bOn postcode 4 digit level. *Significance < 0.05, **Significance < 0.001. The reference category was non-sports participants in all models, i.e. the categories public space, sports club, and other sports facility are all compared to non-participants. SES = Socio-economic Status