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Table 2 Crude odds ratios for over-the-counter (OTC) drug use by price category

From: Prices of over-the-counter drugs used by 15-year-old adolescents in Germany and their association with socioeconomic background

  Crude odds ratio of utilization (and 95% confidence interval)
All OTC drugs OTC drugs ≥ €10 OTC drugs ≥ €25
Gender
 Male Reference Reference Reference
 Female 1.50*** (1.33–1.70) 1.27* (1.00–1.61) 0.93 (0.56–1.54)
Study area
 Munich Reference Reference Reference
 Leipzig 0.85 (0.68–1.06) 0.83 (0.54–1.26) 0.53 (0.19–1.50)
 Bad Honnef 1.00 (0.73–1.37) 0.92 (0.51–1.64) 0.29 (0.04–2.14)
 Wesel 0.83** (0.73–0.95) 0.62** (0.47–0.81) 0.45** (0.24–0.82)
Maternal educational level
 Low Reference Reference Reference
 Medium 1.44** (1.14–1.82) 1.63 (0.98–2.72) 0.97 (0.39–2.43)
 High 1.59** (1.27–1.99) 1.95* (1.19–3.20) 1.02 (0.42–2.48)
Paternal educational level
 Low Reference Reference Reference
 Medium 1.10 (0.90–1.34) 1.55 (1.00–2.39) 2.84* (1.03–7.83)
 High 1.37** (1.16–1.62) 2.20** (1.51–3.19) 2.81* (1.10–7.18)
Household income
 Low Reference Reference Reference
 Medium 1.24* (1.02–1.51) 1.46 (0.98–2.17) 0.85 (0.38–1.91)
 High 1.27* (1.05–1.54) 1.32 (0.89–1.95) 1.14 (0.53–2.43)
Chronic disease
 No Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 1.65*** (1.44–1.89) 1.88*** (1.48–2.40) 2.00** (1.19–3.35)
  1. Significant at *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.0001