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Table 3 Age-adjusted means of cardiovascular risk factors by sex and HbA1c-defined diabetes status among adults aged 20 years or older, 1988–2014a

From: Trends in cardiovascular risk factors among U.S. men and women with and without diabetes, 1988–2014

Risk actors by sex and diabetes status NHANES 1988–1994 NHANES 1999–2002 NHANES 2003–2006 NHANES 2007–2010 NHANES 2011–2014 P Value for Linear Trend, 1988–1994 to 2011-2014b
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Non-diabetic Men 26.42 (26.21–26.63) 27.41 (27.19–27.63) 28.05 (27.81–28.28) 28.24 (27.98–28.5) 28.14 (27.91–28.37) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 29.61 (28.25–30.96) 33.02 (31.24–34.79) 32.40 (31.04–33.75) 32.55 (31.42–33.69) 33.49 (31.60–35.38) <.0001
 Non- diabetic Women 26.16 (25.86–26.46) 27.84 (27.48–28.20) 28.01 (27.60–28.42) 28.07 (27.82–28.32) 28.58 (28.22–28.94) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 31.97 (29.94–33.99) 33.48 (31.88–35.09) 35.04 (33.36–36.71) 36.45 (34.76–38.14) 35.84 (34.52–37.15) <.0001
Waist circumference (cm)
 Non- diabetic Men 95.30 (94.89–95.70) 98.26 (97.66–98.87) 100.16 (99.50–100.82) 100.01 (99.28–100.75) 99.96 (99.32–100.59) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 104.35 (100.84–107.87) 113.04 (108.89–117.19) 110.93 (107.77–114.09) 110.78 (107.42–114.14) 114.61 (109.97–119.26) <.0001
 Non- diabetic Women 88.00 (87.31–88.68) 91.74 (90.83–92.64) 93.32 (92.40–94.24) 93.83 (93.16–94.50) 95.41 (94.61–96.21) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 102.38 (98.03–106.73) 106.57 (102.73–110.41) 109.25 (105.18–113.31) 114.15 (110.57–117.72) 112.37 (109.30–115.45) <.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Non-diabetic Men 125.16 (124.52–125.79) 124.40 (123.36–125.45) 124.23 (123.37–125.08) 122.77 (122.19–123.35) 122.53 (121.74–123.33) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 129.59 (126.81–132.37) 127.83 (124.63–131.04) 127.24 (124.22–130.25) 126.56 (124.38–128.75) 128.82 (126.41–131.23) 0.0008
 Non- diabetic Women 120.16 (119.55–120.78) 122.23 (121.49–122.97) 120.68 (119.99–121.38) 118.17 (117.43–118.91) 118.73 (118.02–119.43) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 126.89 (124.55–129.24) 130.50 (127.19–133.81) 127.97 (125.70–130.24) 125.50 (123.39–127.61) 124.35 (122.04–126.67)c <.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Non-diabetic Men 76.70 (76.27–77.12) 73.86 (73.19–74.54) 71.68 (71.12–72.24) 71.98 (71.26–72.70) 71.77 (70.94–72.60) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 77.88 (75.91–79.85) 75.80 (72.40–79.20) 73.79 (71.22–76.37) 70.88 (68.41–73.34) 73.37 (70.89–75.86) <.0001
 Non-diabetic Women 72.26 (71.82–72.70) 70.87 (70.17–71.58) 69.31 (68.68–69.95) 68.42 (67.55–69.29) 69.58 (68.94–70.22) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 74.63 (73.40–75.86) 70.03 (66.85–73.21) 69.73 (67.79–71.67) 70.01 (68.25–71.76) 70.69 (69.25–72.13) <.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)
 Non-diabetic Men 5.24 (5.19–5.29) 5.09 (5.04–5.14) 5.15 (5.11–5.18) 5.03 (4.98–5.08) 4.90 (4.86–4.95) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 5.24 (4.88–5.59) 5.06 (4.84–5.29) 5.21 (5.00–5.42) 4.78 (4.61–4.95) 4.69 (4.50–4.89) <.0001
 Non-diabetic Women 5.30 (5.26–5.35) 5.15 (5.10–5.20) 5.28 (5.24–5.32) 5.15 (5.11–5.19) 5.08 (5.04–5.11) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 5.52 (5.36–5.68) 5.31 (5.12–5.50) 5.20 (4.97–5.44) 5.20 (4.96–5.43) 4.95 (4.82–5.07) <.0001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)
 Non-diabetic Men 1.2 (1.18–1.22) 1.21 (1.19–1.22) 1.27 (1.26–1.29) 1.23 (1.21–1.25) 1.26 (1.24–1.28) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 1.11 (1.03–1.19) 1.05 (0.98–1.11) 1.15 (1.08–1.21) 1.13 (1.07–1.18) 1.12 (1.07–1.16) 0.0388
 Non-diabetic Women 1.45 (1.42–1.47) 1.47 (1.44–1.5) 1.56 (1.54–1.59) 1.51 (1.49–1.54) 1.53 (1.51–1.55) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 1.25 (1.19–1.31) 1.25 (1.21–1.3) 1.36 (1.28–1.43) 1.27 (1.19–1.34) 1.22 (1.18–1.26) 0.8459
Non- HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)
 Non-diabetic Men 4.04 (3.99–4.09) 3.89 (3.84–3.94) 3.88 (3.84–3.92) 3.8 (3.75–3.84) 3.64 (3.6–3.69) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 4.12 (3.69–4.55) 4.01 (3.79–4.23) 4.06 (3.85–4.27) 3.65 (3.46–3.84) 3.58 (3.37–3.79) <.0001
 Non-diabetic Women 3.86 (3.81–3.91) 3.68 (3.63–3.74) 3.72 (3.67–3.77) 3.64 (3.6–3.68) 3.55 (3.51–3.59) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 4.27 (4.09–4.45) 4.06 (3.85–4.27) 3.85 (3.63–4.06) 3.93 (3.72–4.14) 3.72 (3.6–3.85) <.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/l) d
 Non-diabetic Men 1.52 (1.45–1.58) 1.45 (1.37–1.53) 1.36 (1.31–1.42) 1.38 (1.33–1.42) 1.41 (1.36–1.46) 0.0123
 Diabetic Men 1.93 (1.67–2.19) 1.87 (1.66–2.07) 1.67 (1.49–1.86) 1.57 (1.32–1.82) 1.74 (1.51–1.98) 0.0034
 Non-diabetic Women 1.33 (1.28–1.37) 1.32 (1.28–1.36) 1.23 (1.19–1.26) 1.23 (1.18–1.27) 1.22 (1.18–1.27) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 1.81 (1.76–1.86) 1.64 (1.39–1.9) 1.78 (1.43–2.13) 1.79 (1.55–2.04) 1.83 (1.66–2.01) 0.2453
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) d
 Non-diabetic Men 3.39 (3.34–3.44) 3.28 (3.2–3.35) 3.04 (2.98–3.09) 3.04 (3–3.09) 2.97 (2.91–3.02) <.0001
 Diabetic Men 3.45 (3.25–3.66) 3.13 (2.86–3.4) 2.81 (2.6–3.02) 2.68 (2.48–2.89) 2.58 (2.35–2.81) <.0001
 Non-diabetic Women 3.24 (3.18–3.31) 3.13 (3.07–3.18) 2.98 (2.93–3.04) 3 (2.95–3.06) 2.97 (2.93–3.02) <.0001
 Diabetic Women 3.31 (3.23–3.39) 3.02 (2.87–3.17) 2.99 (2.73–3.25) 2.99 (2.72–3.26) 2.9 (2.74–3.06) <.0001
  1. aAll estimates are weighted to be representative of the US noninstitutionalized population. Means were age-standardized by the direct method to the 2000 US Census population using the age categories of 20–39, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years
  2. bApplying the Bonferroni method for adjusting for multiple comparisons for diabetic and non-diabetic men and women, there were 6 implied comparisons and an α = 0.008 (α = 0.05/6) was used
  3. cSignificant quadratic trend: P < 0.001 for diabetic women, adjusted for multiple comparisons
  4. dTriglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol measurements were available only for persons examined in the morning session. Subsample fasting sample weights were used for triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol