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Table 2 Age-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors by sex and glucose-defined diabetes status among adults aged 20 years or older, 1988–2014a

From: Trends in cardiovascular risk factors among U.S. men and women with and without diabetes, 1988–2014

Risk actors by sex and diabetes status NHANES 1988–1994 NHANES 1999–2002 NHANES 2003–2006 NHANES 2007–2010 NHANES 2011–2014 P Value for Linear Trend, 1988–1994 to 2011-2014b P Value for Comparison of NHANES 2011–2014 and NHANES 1988–1994
Smoking (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 32.52 (30.34–34.69) 22.78 (20.45–25.11) 23.68 (21.52–25.83) 20.54 (18.19–22.88) 19.01 (15.79–22.24) <.0001 −13.51 (−17.39 to −9.62)
 Diabetic Men 23.63 (17.33–29.92) 20.11 (14.89–25.32) 19.25 (14.15–24.35) 17.41 (14.25–20.56) 16.11 (10.12–22.11) 0.0218 −7.52 (−16.21 to 1.18)
 Non-diabetic Women 25.19 (23.43–26.95) 18.85 (17.01–20.68) 18.51 (16.64–20.39) 16.16 (14.19–18.13) 13.55 (11.62–15.48) <.0001 −11.64 (−14.25 to −9.03)
 Diabetic Women 22.06 (17.82–26.29) 10.75 (6.86–14.64) 14.28 (8.92–19.64) 14.78 (11.26–18.29) 14.80 (7.71–21.89) 0.0081 −7.26 (−15.52 to 1.01)
Use of antihypertensive medications (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 9.04 (7.70–10.37) 15.11 (13.42–16.79) 19.84 (18.13–21.55) 20.57 (18.31–22.84) 21.13 (17.67–24.58) <.0001 12.09 (8.38 to 15.80)
 Diabetic Men 28.28 (23.20–33.36) 46.01 (39.71–52.31) 53.01 (48.03–58.00) 54.69 (49.57–59.81) 56.60 (47.16–66.03) <.0001 28.32 (17.59 to 39.04)
 Non-diabetic Women 12.38 (11.39–13.37) 19.60 (17.74–21.45) 21.72 (19.80–23.63) 23.15 (21.68–24.63) 23.80 (20.51–27.09) <.0001 11.42 (7.98 to 14.86)
 Diabetic Women 39.50 (34.03–44.97) 59.51 (53.51–65.51) 61.47 (56.51–66.43) 62.25 (56.90–67.61) 61.08 (55.65–66.52) <.0001 21.58 (13.87 to 29.30)
Use of Lipid-Lowering Medications (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 2.16 (1.64–2.67) 8.38 (7.18–9.59) 10.97 (9.68–12.25) 13.32 (11.76–14.88) 13.33 (10.66–16.00) <.0001 11.17 (8.45 to 13.89)
 Diabetic Men 8.26 (4.73–11.79) 28.73 (24.50–32.96) 41.73 (35.53–47.92) 41.29 (37.25–45.33) 49.00 (41.86–56.14) <.0001 40.74 (32.77 to 48.71)
 Non-Diabetic Women 2.91 (2.21–3.61) 6.72 (5.79–7.64) 10.51 (8.88–12.13) 12.41 (11.17–13.64) 13.99 (10.94–17.05) <.0001 11.08 (7.95 to 14.21)
 Diabetic Women 6.92 (4.33–9.52) 26.26 (19.96–32.55) 36.28 (31.23–41.33) 38.38 (33.08–43.68) 49.68 (42.82–56.54) <.0001 42.76 (35.42 to 50.09)
Prevalence of achieving systolic/diastolic blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 71.93 (69.70–74.17) 72.67 (70.46–74.88) 71.43 (69.69–73.17) 76.32 (74.62–78.02) 77.22 (74.51–79.93) <.0001 5.29 (1.77 to 8.80)
 Diabetic Men 47.51 (40.52–54.50) 52.32 (46.82–57.81) 57.16 (50.81–63.51) 62.37 (57.68–67.07) 55.96 (46.33–65.60) 0.0019 8.45 (−3.46 to 20.37)
 Non-diabetic Women 76.27 (74.31–78.22) 72.49 (70.71–74.26) 75.40 (73.73–77.07) 79.27 (77.63–80.91) 78.84 (76.54–81.15) <.0001 2.57 (−0.44 to 5.60)
 Diabetic Women 45.66 (40.96–50.36) 42.63 (35.39–49.87) 54.67 (49.25–60.09) 59.91 (55.73–64.08) 55.84 (50.98–60.69) <.0001 10.18 (3.42 to 16.94)
Prevalence of achieving LDL-cholesterol <100 mg/dL (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 64.85 (62.73–66.98) 64.83 (62.60–67.07) 67.87 (66.17–69.57) 68.23 (66.46–69.99) 67.30 (63.50–71.10) 0.0005 2.45 (−1.90 to 6.81)
 Diabetic Men 65.73 (59.80–71.66) 75.75 (70.28–81.22) 77.59 (73.40–81.77) 81.81 (78.17–85.46) 78.37 (73.59–83.16) <.0001 12.64 (5.02 to 20.27)
 Non-diabetic Women 66.90 (65.04–68.77) 67.42 (65.67–69.17) 70.55 (68.98–72.12) 67.76 (66.34–69.19) 67.04 (64.13–69.94) 0.0369 0.14 (−3.32 to 3.59)
 Diabetic Women 65.36 (59.98–70.74) 79.47 (74.43–84.52) 76.74 (71.23–82.26) 80.83 (78.02–83.65) 76.65 (71.68–81.62) <.0001 11.29 (3.96 to 18.62)
Prevalence of achieving HbA1c <7.0% (%)
 Diabetic Men 56.50 (50.01–62.99) 40.57 (34.30–46.84) 54.40 (49.59–59.22) 54.06 (48.05–60.07) 57.29 (51.38–63.20) 0.2121 0.79 (−8.00 to 9.58)
 Diabetic Women 51.61 (44.90–58.33) 43.24 (36.66–49.83) 58.16 (52.93–63.39) 62.10 (57.22–66.99) 56.81 (49.80–63.81) 0.0002 5.20 (−4.51 to 14.91)
  1. aAll estimates are weighted to be representative of the US noninstitutionalized population. Means were age-standardized by the direct method to the 2000 US Census population using the age categories of 20–39, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years
  2. bApplying the Bonferroni method for adjusting for multiple comparisons for diabetic and non-diabetic men and women, there were 6 implied comparisons and an α = 0.008 (α = 0.05/6) was used