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Table 2 Prospective associations between the Healthy Dietary Adherence Score at baseline and indicators of psychosocial wellbeing at follow-up (N = 7196)

From: Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and adherence to healthy dietary guidelines in European children: prospective findings from the IDEFICS study

  KINDL® SDQ
  Better self-esteem Good parent relations No detectable emotional problems No detectable peer problems
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
HDAS (higher adherence) 1.2** 1.1–1.3 1.1 1.0–1.3 1.2** 1.1–1.3 1.3*** 1.1–1.4
HDAS components (higher adherence)
 Fruit & Vegetables 1.2* 1.0–1.3 1.3** 1.1–1.4 1.2* 1.0–1.3 1.2** 1.0–1.3
 Fish 1.2* 1.0–1.4 1.1 1.0–1.3 1.2** 1.1–1.4 1.2** 1.1–1.4
 Whole meal 1.1 0.9–1.3 1.0 0.9–1.1 1.1 0.9–1.2 1.1* 1.0–1.3
 Sugar 1.1 0.9–1.3 1.2 1.0–1.4 0.9 0.8–1.1 1.0 0.9–1.2
 Fat 1.0 0.9–1.2 1.0 0.9–1.2 1.2** 1.1–1.3 1.1 1.0–1.2
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. P-value obtained using a multilevel model correcting for cluster design (country)
  3. Model adjusted for: age, sex, BMI z-score, well-being at baseline, and highest parental education and income
  4. HDAS Healthy Dietary Adherence Score; OR Odds ratio; SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire