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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics at baseline and follow-up in the complete sample (N = 7675)

From: Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and adherence to healthy dietary guidelines in European children: prospective findings from the IDEFICS study

  Baseline 2007/2008 Follow-up 2009/2010
  mean ± SD min., max. IQR mean ± SD min., max. IQR
Age (years) 6.0 (1.8) 2.0;9.7 4.4;7.6 8.0 (1.8) 3.9;11.8 6.4;9.5
BMI z-score1 0.3 (1.2) −5.4;5.8 −0.5;1.0 0.4 (1.2) −6.6;4.7 −0.4;1.2
Self-esteem score (KINDL®) 89.4 (10.4) 25.0;100.0 81.3;100.0 87.0 (10.7) 25.0;100.0 81.3;93.8
Parent relations score (KINDL®) 84.8 (10.2) 43.8;100.0 75.0;93.8 83.9 (10.5) 25.0;100.0 75.0;93.8
Emotional problems score (SDQ) 1.6 (1.7) 0.0;10.0 0.0;2.0 1.6 (1.7) 0.0;10.0 0.0;2.0
Peer problems score (SDQ) 1.3 (1.5) 0.0;10.0 0.0;2.0 1.2 (1.5) 0.0;10.0 0.0;2.0
HDAS 22.0 (9.0) 0.0;49.0 16.0;28.0 23.0 (9.0) 0.0;49.0 17.0;28.0
  n %   n %  
Sex of the child (male) 3894 51   3894 51  
Overweight (including obese) 1385 18   1727 23  
Higher parental education level2 4480 59   4572 60  
Higher parental income level3 3738 52   4259 60  
Indicators of well-being
 Better self-esteem (KINDL®)Δ 4086 53   4702 61  
Good parent relations (KINDL®)Δ 3914 51   3824 50  
 No detectable emotional problems (SDQ)Λ 6625 86   6620 86  
 No detectable peer problems (SDQ)Λ 6194 81   6349 83  
Healthy Dietary Adherence Score
 Total HDAS (higher adherence)† 4017 52   3970 52  
HDAS components (higher adherence)
 fruits & vegetables 4983 65   4993 65  
 fish 5383 71   5315 70  
 whole meal 4011 52   4217 56  
 sugar 1642 21   1868 24  
 fat 4846 63   4196 55  
  1. 1BMI z-score calculated based on the method proposed by the International Obesity Task Force [29]
  2. 2Post-secondary education
  3. 3Country-specific reference to the average net equivalence income, considering the median income and poverty line
  4. ΔCut-off values for Better self-esteem ≥ 87.50 (both sexes) and Good parent relations > 83.58(m)/84.40(f)
  5. ΛCut-off values for No detectable emotional problems ≤ 3 and No detectable peer problems ≤ 2
  6. Cut-off value for Higher adherence to the HDAS ≥ 21 at baseline and ≥ 22 at follow-up
  7. IQR Interquartile Range; SD standard deviation; SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; HDAS Healthy Dietary Adherence Score