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Table 4 Recommendations compared to the Russell standard

From: Exploring consensus on how to measure smoking cessation. A Delphi study

  Russell standard Findings Recommendations (Russell 2.0)
Self-report Prolonged abstinence Over the whole follow-up period Prolonged abstinence 6 or/and 12 months Prolonged abstinence 6 or/and 12 months
    Point prevalence abstinence 7 daysa Point prevalence abstinence 7 daysa
    Continuous abstinence 6 monthsa   
    Number of cigarettes smoked 7 daysa Number of cigarettes smoked 7 daysa
Grace period   Undefined   Undefined   Two weeks
Biochemical validation Carbon monoxide (9 p.p.m. in) expired air Carbon monoxide expired air   
    Cotinineb salivaa Cotinineb (15 ng/ml in) salivaa
Follow-up   6 or/and 12 months   6 or/and 12 months   6 or/and 12 months
  1. aDifferent from the Russell standard
  2. bUse biochemical validation in new product and harm-reduction studies