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Table 4 Association between hypertension and selected socio-demographic-, behavioural- and metabolic risk factors among 25-74-year-old citizens in Yangon Region, Myanmar, in 2004

From: Changes in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension from 2004 to 2014 among 25-74-year-old citizens in the Yangon Region, Myanmar

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
   pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value
Socio-demographic:
 Age   1.06 (1.06-1.07) <0.001* 1.07 (1.06-1.08) <0.001* 1.06 (1.05-1.08) <0.001* 1.07 (1.05-1.08) <0.001*
  Location Urban (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Rural 0.85 (0.64-1.14) 0.262 0.89 (0.66-1.19) 0.394 1.05 (0.79-1.39) 0.726 1.08 (0.82-1.42) 0.546
 Gender Male (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Female 1.15 (1.01-1.31) 0.032* 1.20 (1.00-1.43) 0.047* 0.98 (0.84-1.14) 0.728 1.08 (0.89-1.32) 0.386
  Education No formal (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  1-5 years 1.34 (0.92-1.95) 0.116 1.38 (0.95-1.99) 0.085 1.10 (0.74-1.64) 0.622 1.13 (0.75-1.71) 0.525
  6-11 years 1.48 (0.98-2.24) 0.062 1.46 (0.98-2.16) 0.059 1.11 (0.70-1.77) 0.622 1.17 (0.74-1.86) 0.463
  > 11 years 1.42 (0.91-2.22) 0.113 1.36 (0.87-2.13) 0.163 1.00 (0.63-1.57) 0.987 1.03 (0.64-1.64) 0.903
  Ethnicity Bamar (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Non-Bamar 1.01 (0.80-1.29) 0.901 0.97 (0.75-1.25) 0.783 0.91 (0.69-1.20) 0.495 0.91 (0.71-1.18) 0.450
Behavioural:
 Tobacco smoking No (Ref)   (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes 0.83 (0.69-1.01) 0.069 0.78 (0.65-0.94) 0.013*    0.97 (0.82-1.16) 0.738
 Alcohol consumption No (Ref)   (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes 1.46 (1.12- 1.9) 0.009* 1.53 (1.18-1.99) 0.004*    1.64 (1.24-2.17) 0.002*
 Low physical activity No (Ref)   (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes 1.82 (1.23-2.69) 0.005* 1.83 (1.23-2.69) 0.005*    1.91 (1.28-2.85) 0.004*
Metabolic:
 BMI Normal (Ref)     (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Underweight 0.42 (0.30-0.59) <0.001*    0.44 (0.31-0.62) <0.001* 0.43 (0.30-0.61) <0.001*
  Overweight 2.02 (1.58-2.58) <0.001*    1.88 (1.49-2.37) <0.001* 1.89 (1.49-2.40) <0.001*
 Diabetes No (Ref)     (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Yes 1.94 (1.36-2.77) <0.001*    1.61 (1.13-2.31) 0.013* 1.60 (1.10-2.32) 0.018*
 Hypercholesterolemia No (Ref)     (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Yes 1.48 (1.20-1.82) <0.001*    1.22 (0.99-1.48) 0.052 1.22 (1.00-1.49) 0.050*
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age, location, gender, education and ethnicity; Model 2 adjustment –behavioural risk factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, low physical activity were added to Model 1; Model 3 adjustment- the metabolic risk factors: BMI, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were added to Model 1; Model 4 included all variables in the table
  2. *p-value ≤0.05 from multivariate logistic regression
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