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Table 10 High-level summary of findings by health indicator

From: Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in the early years (0–4 years)

Health Indicator # of studies Quality of Evidence Summary of Findings
Critical
 Adiposity 31 Low N = 20 studies reported a significant association between shorter sleep duration and adiposity.
N = 9 studies reported null findings.
N = 2 studies reported a significant association between longer sleep duration and adiposity.
 Emotional Regulation 25 Very Low to High N = 13 studies reported a significant association between shorter sleep duration and poorer emotional regulation.
N = 10 studies reported null findings.
N = 2 studies reported a significant association between longer sleep duration and poorer emotional regulation.
 Cognitive Development 16 Low to High N = 6 studies reported a significant association between shorter sleep duration and poorer cognitive function.
N = 8 reported null findings.
N = 2 study reported a significant association between longer sleep duration and poorer cognitive function.
 Motor Development 2 Low N = 2 studies reported null findings.
 Growth 2 Very Low N = 2 studies reported better growth with longer sleep duration.
Important
 Sedentary Behavior 5 Very Low N = 5 studies reported shorter sleep duration was associated with more screen time.
 Physical Activity 4 Low to Very Low N = 2 studies reported longer sleep duration was associated with more physical activity.
N = 2 studies reported null findings.
 Risks/Injuries 3 Low N = 2 studies reported a higher risk of injuries with shorter sleep duration.
N = 1 study reported null findings.
 Quality of Life/Well-Being 1 Very Low N = 1 study reported null findings.
 Cardio-Metabolic Health 0 N/A N/A
  1. The number of studies is more than N = 69 because some papers had more than one outcome measure and/or study design