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Table 1 Association between sleep duration and adiposity in children aged 0–4 years

From: Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in the early years (0–4 years)

No of studies Design Quality Assessment No of participants Absolute effect Quality
Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other
Mean age ranged between 0 and 4.9 years. Data were collected cross-sectionally and up to 9.5 years of follow-up. Sleep duration was assessed by actigraphy or parent report. Adiposity was assessed objectively as body weight, body mass index (absolute, z-score or percentile), waist-for-length ratio, weight status (different definitions for underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese) or % body fat/fat mass/fat mass index (bioelectrical impedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfolds).
13 Longitudinal studya No serious risk of bias No serious inconsistency No serious indirectness No serious imprecision None 31,482 Out of 13 longitudinal analyses, 10 reported a significant association between shorter sleep duration and adiposity gain [17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26], 2 reported null findings [27, 28], and 1 reported that longer sleep duration predicted adiposity gain [29]. LOW
18 Cross-sectional studyb No serious risk of bias No serious inconsistency No serious indirectness No serious imprecision None 30,829 Out of 18 cross-sectional analyses, 10 reported a significant association between shorter sleep duration and adiposity [23, 26, 30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37], 7 reported null findings [24, 25, 27, 28, 38,39,40], and 1 reported that sleep duration was positively associated with BMI z-scores [41]. LOW
  1. Due to heterogeneity in the measurement of sleep and adiposity, a meta-analysis was not possible
  2. aIncludes 13 longitudinal studies [17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29]
  3. bIncludes 18 cross-sectional studies [23,24,25,26,27,28, 30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41]