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Table 2 Determinants of inappropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, Madagascar 2009

From: Situation and determinants of the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators in Madagascar: analysis of the 2009 Demographic and Health Survey

Variables Late introduction of breastfeeding (after 1 h) Not exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Untimely introduction of semi-solid, solid and soft foods Diet diversity score less than 4 Not consuming iron-rich foods
Child factor
 Sex (ref. male) 1.09 (0.88–1.35) 0.75 (0.52–1.09) 1.04 (0.50–2.18) 0.91 (0.70–1.20) 1.34 (1.04–1.73)*
Maternal factors
 Age at first birth
  -19 and older 1 1 1 1 1
  -Less than 19 1.25 (1.01–1.54)* 1.59 (1.10–2.31)* 1.29 (0.60–2.76) 1.61 (1.26–2.05)*** 1.41 (1.09–1.82)***
 Maternal education
  -No formal education 1 1 1 1 1
  -Primary 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.90 (0.58–1.38) 0.66 (0.29–1.51) 0.73 (0.52–1.02) 0.71 (0.49–1.02)
  -Secondary 0.77 (0.56–1.05) 0.69 (0.40–1.18) 0.67 (0.22–2.01) 0.21 (0.15–0.30)*** 0.19 (0.13–0.27)***
  -Higher 1.23 (0.57–2.63) 4.21 (0.48–37.08) 1.92 (0.19–19.93) 0.04 (0.02–0.11)*** 0.03 (0.01–0.08)***
 Media exposure
  Reading newspaper
   -Not at all 1.23 (0.57–2.70) 1.04 (0.30–3.66) 0.91 (0.11–7.86) 16.00 (6.81–37.60)*** 7.61 (3.67–15.79)***
   -At least once a week 1.17 (0.51–2.68) 1.14 (0.30–4.33) 0.20 (0.01–3.66) 4.20 (1.73–10.24)** 1.89 (0.87–4.08)
   -Almost every day 1 1 1 1 1
  Listening to radio
   -Not at all 1.33 (1.04–1.70)* 1.21 (0.79–1.85) 1.69 (0.65–4.44) 2.77 (2.08–3.69)*** 2.57 (1.91–3.44)***
   -At least once a week 0.98 (0.72–1.34) 0.870(0.53–1.42) 2.23 (0.67–7.151) 1.26 (0.92–1.73) 1.64 (1.16–2.31)**
   -Almost every day 1 1 1 1 1
  Watching TV
   -Not at all 1.17 (0.79–1.71) 0.94 (0.48–1.84) 1.64 (0.37–7.34) 7.44 (5.12–10.81)*** 9.28 (6.36–13.54)***
   -At least once a week 0.83 (0.44–1.56) 1.02 (0.39–2.68) 1.44 (0.11–18.08) 2.71 (1.50–4.90)** 3.07 (1.68–5.59)***
   -Almost every day 1 1 1 1 1
 Work status
  -No 0.80 (0.56–1.13) 1.04 (0.62–1.74) 1.31 (0.47–3.70) 0.52 (0.36–0.74)*** 0.37 (0.26–0.54)***
  -Yes 1 1 1 1 1
Household factors
 Wealth Index
  -Poorest 1 1 1 1 1
  -Poorer 0.83 (0.62–1.12) 1.28 (0.72–2.27) 1.28 (0.38–4.36) 0.95 (0.61–1.49) 1.13 (0.70–1.84)
  -Middle 0.63 (0.46–0.87)** 1.19 (0.63–2.26) 1.00 (0.26–3.78) 0.58 (0.38–0.90)* 0.639 (0.41–0.99)*
  -Richer 0.58 (0.41–0.82)** 0.81 (0.44–1.49) 1.58 (0.41–6.08) 0.36 (0.24–0.54)*** 0.59 (0.37–0.93)*
  -Richest 0.78 (0.56–1.08) 0.60 (0.31–1.15) 1.97 (0.51–7.61) 0.10 (0.07–0.12)*** 0.09 (0.06–0.13)***
 Area of residence
  -Urban 1 1 1 1 1
  -Rural 1.09 (0.82–1.44) 1.07 (0.67–1.72) 1.58 (0.52–4.73) 4.00 (3.01–5.32)*** 5.22 (3.90–6.99) ***
  1. Results expressed as crude odds ratios OR (95% CI)
  2. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001