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Table 4 Impact of nutrition interventions on fat intake of children

From: How effective are family-based and institutional nutrition interventions in improving children’s diet and health? A systematic review

Study Fat results (Cohens’ d or mean differencea (95% CI) Outcome method Direction of assoc. Intervention vs control
Family studies
 Hendrie 2011 Total fat Mean diff = −10.9 g/day (−19.3, −2.5), Saturated fat Mean diff = −8.1 g/day (−11.9 to −4.3) 24 h recall ×3 +
 Kaitosaari 2006 STRIP study Total fat Boys d = −0.24 (−0.68, 0.20);
Girls d = −0.78 (−1.22,-0.34)
Saturated fat Boys d = −0.79 (−1.22,-0.34);
Girls d = −1.17 (−1.63, −0.71)
Polyunsaturated fat Boys d = 0.55 (0.10, 0.99); Girls d = 0.62 (0.19, 1.06)
4 day food record +
 Raitakari 2005 Saturated fat Girls age 11 d = −0.46 (−0.76, −0.17) Boys d = −0.95 (−1.25, −0.64) 4 day food record +
 Olvera 2008, 2010 Reduced intake of high fat foods d = 0.39 (−0.28, 1.06) FFQ +
 Stolley 1997 Saturated fat d = 0.39 (−0.17, 0.95)
Fat % of Total energy d = 0.54 (−0.02, 1.11)
FFQ +
School studies with no parent component
 Andersen 2014 Total fat d = 0.00 (−0.11,0.10),
Saturated fat d = 0.00 (−0.11, 0.10),
Monounsaturated fat d = 0.00 (−0.11,0.10) Polyunsaturated fat d = 0.00 (−0.10,0.10)
Trans fatty acid d = 0.00 (−0.10,0.10)
7 day food diary
 Christian 2014 Total fat intake d = 0.02 (−0.13, 0.18) 24 h recall
 Crepinsek 2006 Total fat d = −0.11(−0.17, −0.04)
Saturated fat Mean diff = −0.20% (% of total energy)
24 h recall +
School studies with parent component
 Anderson 2005 Fat as % energy Mean diff = −0.1% 3 day food diary
 Caballero 2003
 Pathways study
Total Fat Mean diff = −2.5% (−3.9,-1.1)
Total fat at lunch Mean diff = −4.2% (−7.1,-1.3) (% of total energy)
Direct observation, 24 h recall +
 Cohen 2014 Energy from saturated fat d = −0.02 (−0.21, 0.17) 24 h recall, Modified FFQ
 Evans 2012 Total fat Mean diff = 1.2 g/day (−2.8,5.1), Saturated fat Mean diff = 0.0 g/day (−1.5,1.5) 24 h recall
 Greening 2011 Reduced dietary fat d = 0.33 (0.15, 0.52) Child dietary fat questionnaire +
 Hopper 1996 Saturated fat Mean diff = −0.63 g/day (p > 0.05) 24 h recall +
 Kristjansdottir 2010 Total fat (g/day) d = 0.18 (−0.2,0.56)
Saturated Fat d = 0.04 (−0.34, 0.42)
Monounsaturated fat d = 0.35 (−0.04, 0.73)
PUFA d = 0.03 (−0.35, 0.41)
3 day weighed food record +/−
 Leupker 1996 Fat as % energy d=-0.23 (-0.35, -0.11)
Monounsaturated fat d= -0.15 (-0.26, 0.03)
Saturated fat d=-0.20 (-0.32, -0.09)
Polyunsaturated fat d=- 0.16, (-0.28, 0.045)
(All % Total energy)
24 h recall +
  1. ad = Cohen’s d where data available otherwise mean difference presented