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Table 3 Impact of nutrition interventions on children’s fruit and vegetable intake

From: How effective are family-based and institutional nutrition interventions in improving children’s diet and health? A systematic review

Study F&V resultsa (95% CI) Outcome method Direction of assoc. Intervention vs control
Family studies
 Baranowski 2003 Fruit & Veg (including juice) intake d = 1.3 (0.55, 2.11) 24-h recall ×2 +
 Cameron 2014 Fruit intake d = 0.06
Veg intake d = 0.05
24-h recall ×3
 Epstein 2001 F&V intake d = 1.05 (0.23–1.87) (↑ F&V group cf. ↓Fat/Sugar group) FFQ +/−
 Olvera 2008, 2010 F&V d = 0.34 SPAN questionnaire +
 Tabak 2012 V intake d = 0.24 (−0.35, 0.84) FFQ
Preschool/School studies with no parent component
 Bere 2006a F&V intake (1 yr) d = 0.21 (0.04, 0.39)
F&V intake (2 yrs) d = 0.19 (0.02, 0.37)
24-h recall +
 Breslin 2012 Veg intake d = 0.17 (−0.03, 0.36)
Fruit intake d = 0.0 (−0.19, 0.19)
FFQ
 Christian 2014 F&V intake d = −0.2 (−0.3, 0.0)
Veg intake d = −0.1 (−0.2, 0.1)
Fruit intake d = −0.1 (−0.3, 0.0)
24-h recall
 Hardy 2010 Fruit in lunch d = −0.11 (−0.40, 0.18)
Veg in lunch d = 0.20 (−0.09, 0.48)
Lunchbox audit
 Hendy 2011 F or V eaten first d = 0.61 (0.36, 0.81) Direct observation +
 Perrikou 2013 Fruit intake d = 1.43 (1.05, 1.79) Exposure
d = 1.41 (1.05, 1.77) Education at 1 year
2 day food record (parent) +
 Perry 2004 Fruit intake d = 0.09
Fruit (no juice) d = 0.12
Direct observation +
Preschool/School studies with parent component
 Anderson 2005 Fruit intake d = 0.48 (0.13, 0.83)
F&V d = 0.04 (−0.30, 0.39)
3 day food record (self-report) +/−
 Baranowski 2000 F&V intake Mean difference 0.2 serves/day (1 yr), 0.2 Serves/day (2 yrs) 7 day food record +
 Bayer 2009 Fruit intake d = 0.14, Veg. intake d = 0.13 FFQ +
 Bere 2006b F&V intake (1 yr) d = 0.03(−0.17, 0.23)
F&V intake (2 yrs) d = −0.1(−0.29, 0.12)
24-h recall
 Cohen 2014 F&V intake/1000 kcal d = 0.1
F intake/1000 kcal d = 0.1
V intake/1000 kcal d = 0.1
24-h recall/FFQ
 De Bock 2012 Change in Fruit intake d = 0.38 (0.18, 0.59) Change in Veg intake 0.33 (0.12, 0.53) Short questions +
 Evans 2012 F&V intake d = 0.01 (−0.14, 0.16) 24-h recall
 Hoffman 2010 Fruit intake 1 yr. d = 0.86, 2 yrs. d = 0.55, Veg intake 1 yr. d = 0.34, 2 yrs. No difference (at school) Direct measurement +/−
 Hopper 1996 Change in F&V serves d = 0.40 (0.00, 0.80) (at school) Direct observation & measurement +
 Horne 2009 F&V consumed at lunch at 1 yr. d = 0.35 (0.16, 0.54) Direct observation & measurement +
 Kristjansdottir 2010 F&V intake d = 0.92 (0.52, 1.32) 3 day weighed food diary +
 Muth 2008 F&V Mean difference + 0.85 serves/day SPAN questionnaire (child) +
 Vereecken 2009 Fruit intake d = 0.19 (0.00, 0.38)
Veg intake d = 0.08 (−0.11, 0.27)
Fruit intake (at school) d = 0.10 (−0.02, 0.22)
FFQ (parent)
Audit (teacher)
+/−
  1. ad = Cohen’s d where data available otherwise mean difference presented