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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: How effective are family-based and institutional nutrition interventions in improving children’s diet and health? A systematic review

Study, Location Setting, Disadvantaged population (if indicated) Interventions Participants age during intervention Sample size Sample size at follow-up Duration of intervention Follow-up duration post-intervention Health & Nutrition Outcomes Potential risk of bias ratinga
Andersen 2014 [40]
Damsgaard 2014 [83]
OPUS school meal study
Denmark
School School meals (free) Years 3 & 4 Mean age 10 years 834 no breakdown by I/C 663 6 month crossover trial 0 Dietary intake (self-report) M
Anderson 2005 [50]
Scotland
School School multicomponent Year 2 & Year 6 classes
6-7 years & 10-11 years
I=158 C=136 I=64 C=65 9 months 0 Dietary intake (self-report) Attitudes & knowledge of heathy eating W
Baranowski 2000 [51]
Gimme 5
USA
School School multicomponent- comprehensive Years 3-5 1864 no breakdown by I/C 1253 2 years 0 Dietary intake (self-report) F&V preferences, Self-efficacy S
Baranowski 2003 [74]
GEMS Fun, Food and Fitness
USA
Family Summer camp/ Internet F/U for family 8 years I=19 C=16 I=17, C=14 3 months <1mth Dietary intake (self-report), BMI, PA levels (accelerometry, self-report) M
Bayer 2009 [64]
Tigerkids
Germany
Preschool Preschool -multicomponent Preschool Mean age 6 years I=1049 C=560, I2=1040 C2=565 I= 850, C=469; I2=872 C2=468 2 years 0 Dietary intake (Parent-report), BMI S
Bere 2006a,2007, 2010 [45, 85, 88]
Free School Fruit
Norway
School School-Free Fruit & multicomponent Year 6/7
Mean age 11.3 years
577 no breakdown by IC I=286 C= 231 2 years (only 1 year free fruit) 1 year, 3years Dietary intake (self-report), F&V preferences S
Bere 2006b [52]
F&V Makes the Marks
Norway
School School- Paid fruit & multicomponent Years 6/7
Mean age 11.3 years
450 no breakdown by I/C I=190 C=179 1 year 1 year Dietary intake (self-report), F&V accessibility, preferences, modelling S
Breslin 2012 [70]
Sport For Life
Northern Ireland
School
Low SES schools
School multicomponent Year 3
8-9 years
I=209 C=207 ? 3 months 1 month Dietary intake (self-report), BMI, PA levels & Screen-time (accelerometry, self-report) S
Caballero 2003 [53]
Davis 2003 [94],
Himes 2003 [95]
Pathways study
USA
School
Native American community schools
School multicomponent Year 3
Mean age 7.6 years
I=879 C=825 I=727, C= 682 3 years 0 Dietary intake (self-report, direct observation), BMI, PA levels (accelerometry, self-report) S
Cameron 2014 [75]
Campbell 2013 [96]
Melbourne InFANT
Australia
Family Parent groups Mother-infant pairs
Infants 4-15 months
I=271 C=271 I= 241 C=239 18 months 0 Dietary intake (parent report), BMI, PA levels & Screen-time (accelerometry) S
Christian 2014 [44]
England
School School gardening Primary school ages 7-11 I=529 C=727 I=312 C=329 2 years 0 Dietary intake (observer & parent-report) W
Cohen 2014 [54]
CHANGE study
USA
School
Low income rural community
School multicomponent Primary school Years 1-6 1302 no breakdown by I/C I=251 C=181 2 years 0 Dietary intake (Assisted self-report) M
Crepinsek 2006 [42]
Universal Free School Breakfast Program
USA
School Free school breakfast program Primary School Years 2-6 4358 no breakdown by I/C I=2212 C=2066 3 years- Evaluation done at 12 months 0 Dietary intake (parent & self-report) S
De Bock 2012 [65]
Germany
Preschool Preschool -multicomponent Preschool Mean age 4.3 years I=194 C=183 202 No breakdown by IC 6 months 6 months Dietary intake (parent report), BMI W
Epstein 2001 [20]
USA
Family Family - Parent sessions 30 families- 1 parent & 1 child
Mean age 8.7 years
I=15 I2=15 27 No breakdown by IC 6 months 6 months Dietary intake (parent & self-report), BMI M
Evans 2013 [55]
Project Tomato
England
School School multicomponent Year 3
(7-8yrs)
I=530 C=550 I=331 C=347 10 months 10months Dietary intake (observer & parent-report) S
Greening 2011 [56]
TEAM Mississippi Project
USA
School
Low SES rural community
School/Family 6-10 years Mean age 8.3 years I=224 C=283 I=204 C=246 8 months 0 Dietary intake (parent-report), Fitness & PA levels S
Hardy 2010 [73]
Munch & Move
Australia
Preschool Preschool -multicomponent Mean age 4.5yrs I=263 C=167 I=218 C=141 5 months 0 Lunch foods (Measurement), Movement skills M
Hendrie 2011 [76]
Hendrie 2013 [97]
Australia
Family Family - Parent sessions 4-13 year old children Mean age 8.6yrs I=76 C=69 I=76 C=64 3 months 3 months Dietary intake (parent & self-report), BMI, Plasma lipids M
Hendy 2011 [46]
Kid’s Choice Program USA
School School rewards program (Lunch) Years 1-4 457 Both groups 382 both groups 3 months 0 Dietary intake (observation), BMI, PA levels (Pedometery) S
Hoffman 2010 [57]
USA
School
Low SES urban community
School multicomponent Kinder, Year 1
Mean age 6.2 years
I=149 C=148 I=113 C=97 6 months 1 year Dietary intake (observation), BMI, F&V preferences W
Hopper 1996 [69]
USA
School School multicomponent Year 2 & 4 Mean age 8.9 years I=48 C=49 I=48 C=49 12 weeks 0 Dietary intake (Assisted self & parent-report),BMI M
Horne 2009 [58]
Food Dudes
Ireland
School School multicomponent 4-11 years I=228 C=207 ? 12 months 0 Dietary intake (observation) M
Kristjansdottir 2010 [59]
Iceland
School School multicomponent 7-9 years 265 No breakdown by I/C I=58 C=48 2 years 0 Dietary intake (Parent report & measurement) W
Luepker 1996 [60],
Dwyer 2002 [84]
CATCH
USA
School School food service changes, curriculum and home program Year 3 initially
8 to 11 years
5106 4019
(1532 at 3 years post intervention)
3 years 3 years BP, BMI/skin fold thickness, serum lipids and Apolipoprotein B, dietary intake (self-report), PA/screen time (self-report), fitness (9 minute run) S
Llargues 2011 [61]
Avall Study
Spain
School School based curriculum multicomponent, plus home Year 1
5-7 years
598,
I=272 C=237
I=272, C=236 2 years 0 BMI, dietary intake (parent-report), PA/screen time (parent-report) S
Moore 2007, 2014 [41], [98]
Murphy 2011 [82]
Welsh Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative
Wales
School Free school breakfast program 9 to 11 years RCT trial with repeated X sectional design 1975 had at least baseline and one follow up 12months 0 Dietary intake (Self-report), Classroom cognitive tests, Attitudes towards breakfast (Self-report), Strengths & Difficulties questionnaire (teacher-report) W
Muth 2008 [62]
IMPACT
USA
School School curriculum based Year 4
Mean age 9.9 years
I=38 C=37 I=37 C=36 3 months plus student leader training 0 Dietary intake (Self -report), PA/sedentary behaviour/screen time (Self -report) S
Natale 2013 [66], [99]
Healthy Caregivers, Healthy children
USA
Preschool Pre-school multicomponent, environmental and family 2 to 5 years I=726 C=379 I=238 C=69 2 years 0 Dietary intake (parent-report), sedentary behaviour (parent-report) W
Natale 2014 [67]
Healthy Inside-Healthy Outside (HI-HO)
USA
Preschool Pre-school multicomponent
plus home
2 to 5 years I=238, C=69 dyads 185 dyads 6 months 6 months Dietary intake (parent-report), BMI, PA levels and screen time (parent-report) M
Ni Mhurchu 2011 [43]
Free school breakfast
New Zealand
School Free school breakfast program Primary school children Mean age 9.4 years 424 375 1 year for longest 0 Breakfast intake/hunger (self-report), food security (family-report) Academic achievement, school attendance (records), Strengths & Difficulties (teacher-report) M
Olvera 2008, 2010 [77, 81]
Bounce program
USA
Family
Latino mothers/ daughters
Community-based PA and nutrition intervention Years 3 to 6 46 dyads, I=26 C=20 I=18 C=17 12 weeks 0 Dietary intake (self & parent report), BMI, PA (accelerometer, shuttle run test) exercise heart rate, peak oxygen consumption M
Perrikou 2013 [72]
Cyprus
School Teacher modelling (EXPO), curriculum (EDUC) two IV streams 9 years I1=68, I2=79, C=71 I1=59, I2=67, C=58 29 weeks 1 year Dietary intake (observation) M
Perry 2004 [47]
Cafeteria Power Plus Project
USA
School Cafeteria-based intervention Years 1 & 3 1668, no breakdown by I/C 1168 2 years 0 Dietary intake (parent-report), BMI M
Raitakari 2005 [49], Kaitosaari 2006 [48]
Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Children (STRIP)
Finland
Family Family-based low saturated fat diet/nutrition intervention Infants 7 months old at commencement I=540 C=522 (families as unit) I=179 C=190 Ongoing FU visits 9 years & 11 years Dietary intake (self & parent report), PA (self-report), endothelial function (brachial artery ultrasound), BP, BMI, lipids, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, Apolipoprotein A, Apolipoprotein B W
Rush, 2012 [63]
Project Energize
New Zealand
School School based nutrition and PA change agent mediated Primary school children Years 1 -6 I=692 C=660 1352 (~30% lost to follow up, analysis restricted to matched groups) 2 years 0 BP, BMI, % body fat (bioelectrical impedance) M
Stolley 1997 [78]
USA
Family
Low income African American families
Community-based PA and nutrition IV 7-12 year olds Pairs I=32, C=33 I=23 daughters & 20 mums
C=27 daughters &18 mums
12 weeks 0 BMI, dietary intake (self-report) M
Tabak 2012 [79]
Family Ties to Health Program
USA
Family Family - Phone calls and newsletters Preschool-aged children
2-5 years
I=25 C=23 I=22 C=21 4 months 0 Dietary intake (parent report) W
Vereecken 2009 [68]
Beastly Healthy at School
Belgium
Preschool Pre-school multicomponent Preschool children
2.5 to 5 years
I=742 kids C=480 I=618 kids C=445 12 weeks 6 months Dietary intake (observation and parent-report) S
  1. a S Strong (Low risk of bias), M Moderate (Moderate risk of bias), W Weak (High risk of bias)