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Table 3 Logistic regression analyses of factors associated with diabetes-CVD comorbidity, no diabetes or CVD is the reference category

From: The extent and determinants of diabetes and cardiovascular disease comorbidity in South Africa – results from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1)

  Step 1-Unadjusted Step 2-Structural Step 3-Intermediary Step 4-Full
Diabetes with CVDs comorbidity OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age 1.09** (1.09–1.10) 1.1** (1.09–1.11)    1.09** (1.06–1.12)
Gender
 Male 1   1     1  
 Female 1.96** (1.49–2.59) 2.03** (1.44–2.86)    1.43 (0.76–2.68)
Residence
 Urban 1   1     1  
 Rural 0.68** (0.53–0.86) 0.59** (0.42–0.81)    0.44 (0.18–1.06)
Race
 African 1   1     1  
 White 1.71 (0.85–3.42) 0.56 (0.26–1.23)    1.62 (0.54–4.84)
 Coloured 1.82** (1.45–2.29) 1.38* (1.01–1.89)    1.94 (0.92–4.11)
 Indian 3.74** (2.57–5.45) 2.15** (1.25–3.70)    2.76 (0.92–8.31)
Household income
 Low 1   1     1  
 Medium 1.3 (0.90–1.89) 0.95 (0.63–1.43)    0.58 (0.28–1.17)
 High 1.07 (0.71–1.60) 0.73 (0.39–1.36)    0.27* (0.10–0.76)
Education
 None 1   1     1  
 Primary 0.91 (0.62–1.34) 2.4** (1.40–4.12)    1.17 (0.40–3.48)
 Secondary 0.30** (0.20–0.43) 2.32** (1.29–4.18)    2.55 (0.78–8.33)
 Tertiary 0.57 (0.29–1.12) 3.52** (1.55–7.99)    3.33 (0.79–14.13)
Employment
 Unemployed 1   1     1  
 Informal 1.67** (1.21–2.30) 0.94 (0.62–1.43)    0.86 (0.30–2.48)
 Formal 0.62** (0.45–0.85) 0.87 (0.58–1.30)    0.71 (0.34–1.51)
Obesity
 Underweight 1     1   1  
 Normal Weight 1.15 (0.51–2.60)    1.40 (0.29–6.73) 1.17 (0.17–7.87)
 Overweight 3.62** (1.68–7.80)    5.76* (1.30–25.61) 3.08 (0.49–19.23)
 Obese 2.85** (1.37–5.93)    5.09* (1.24–20.82) 3.27 (0.59–18.17)
 Self-rated health         
 Bad 1     1   1  
 Moderate 0.52** (0.37–0.75)    0.23 (0.10–0.54) 0.33* (0.11–0.96)
 Good 0.13** (0.09–0.19)    0.15** (0.07–0.36) 0.24** (0.08–0.68)
Smoking
 Never 1     1   1  
 Occasional 0.14** (0.05–0.40)    0.18** (0.06–0.52) 0.29* (0.10–0.88)
 Regular 0.16** (0.07–0.36)    0.21** (0.10–0.46) 0.25** (0.12–0.53)
Alcohol
 Never 1     1   1  
 Occasional 0.71 (0.49–1.02)    0.41* (0.20–0.83) 0.66 (0.30–1.41)
 Regular 0.45** (0.27–0.75)    0.20** (0.10–0.47) 0.35 (0.11–1.10)
Physical activity
 No 1     1   1  
 Yes 0.23** (0.14–0.37)    0.07** (0.02–0.27) 0.15* (0.03–0.68)
  1. **p < 0.001; *p < 0.05; OR Odds Ratio; 95% CI Confidence Interval, CVD Cardiovascular disease