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Table 2 Logistic regression analyses of factors associated with diabetes without CVD comorbidity, no diabetes or CVD is the reference category

From: The extent and determinants of diabetes and cardiovascular disease comorbidity in South Africa – results from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1)

  Step 1-Unadjusted Step 2-Structural Step 3-Intermediary Step 4-Full
Diabetes Only OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age 1.06** (1.05–1.07) 1.06** (1.04–1.07)    1.06** (1.03–1.08)
Gender
 Male 1   1     1  
 Female 1.22 (0.81–1.85) 1.07 (0.63–1.83)    0.8 (0.34–1.84)
Residence
 Urban 1   1     1  
 Rural 0.88 (0.61–1.27) 0.98 (0.63–1.53)    1 (0.32–3.00)
Race
 African 1   1     1  
 White 2.05 (0.92–4.60) 1.29 (0.45–3.66)    1.05 (0.20–5.36)
 Coloured 1.68** (1.13–2.50) 1.61 (0.99–2.62)    1.58 (0.64–3.95)
 Indian 3.65** (2.09–6.36) 2.93** (1.57–5.49)    3.49* (1.11–10.96)
Household income
 Low 1   1     1  
 Medium 0.99 (0.66–1.51) 0.73 (0.46–1.15)    0.93 (0.36–2.40)
 High 1.19 (0.71–2.02) 0.78 (0.45–1.35)    0.47 (0.16–1.32)
Education
 None 1   1     1  
 Primary 0.97 (0.51–1.83) 1.76 (0.87–3.53)    1.91 (0.36–10.14)
 Secondary 0.70 (0.38–1.27) 2.39** (1.18–4.84)    4.51 (0.77–26.47)
 Tertiary 0.71 (0.34–1.51) 1.65 (0.51–5.30)    5.57 (0.70–44.97)
Employment
 Unemployed 1   1     1  
 Informal 2.41** (1.25–4.66) 1.41 (0.68–2.90)    0.79 (0.31–1.98)
 Formal 0.79 (0.53–1.17) 0.71 (0.44–1.13)    0.90 (0.36–2.21)
Obesity
 Underweight 1     1    
 Normal Weight 0.96 (0.30–3.10)    0.65 (0.13–3.39) 0.42 (0.07–2.67)
 Overweight 2.84 (0.91–8.90)    2.63 (0.46–14.97) 0.90 (0.12–6.44)
 Obese 1.29 (0.44–3.80)    0.59 (0.13–2.67) 0.35 (0.06–2.00)
Self-rated health
 Bad 1     1   1  
 Moderate 1.02 (0.50–2.09)    1.04 (0.28–3.94) 1.34 (0.32–5.49)
 Good 0.31** (0.17–0.56)    0.52 (0.14–1.92) 0.79 (0.17–3.60)
Smoking
 Never 1     1   1  
 Occasional 0.27 (0.04–1.84)    0.04** (0.01–0.22) 0.03** (0.00–0.26)
 Regular 0.47 (0.19–1.13)    0.72 (0.32–1.61) 1.02 (0.40–2.65)
Alcohol
 Never 1     1   1  
 Occasional 1.13 (0.60–2.11)    0.27** (0.13–0.57) 0.31** (0.13–0.76)
 Regular 0.11** (0.04–0.33)    0.04** (0.01–0.24) 0.05** (0.01–0.36)
Physical Activity
 No 1     1   1  
 Yes 1.18 (0.55–2.53)    0.93 (0.35–2.46) 1.62 (0.52–5.05)
  1. **p < 0.001; *p < 0.05; OR Odds ratio; 95%; CI Confidence Interval, CVD Cardiovascular disease