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Table 2 Prevalence of psychological ill health by socio-demographic covariates, health behaviours and downsizing exposure

From: Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries

Characteristic Depressive symptoms Anxiety Emotional exhaustion
  high level n/N(%) high level n/N(%) high level n/N(%)
Total sample 89 / 1422 (6.3) 285 / 1415 (20.1) 547 / 1416 (38.6)
Age group p = 0.073 p = 0.268 p = 0.417
 18 to 34 years 13 / 267 (4.9) 44 / 261 (16.9) 94 / 265 (35.5)
 35 to 49 years 48 / 602 (8.0) 122 / 607 (20.1) 242 / 602 (40.2)
 50 years and over 28 / 553 (5.1) 119 / 547 (21.8) 211 / 549 (38.4)
Gender p = 0.019 p = 0.026 p = 0.090
 Men 38 / 778 (4.9) 139 / 773 (18.0) 282 / 770 (36.6)
 Women 51 / 644 (7.9) 146 / 642 (22.7) 265 / 646 (41.0)
Education p = 0.795 p = 0.863 p = 0.589
 University 39 / 642 (6.1) 130 / 639 (20.3) 251 / 637 (39.4)
 Any lower education 50 / 780 (6.4) 155 / 776 (20.0) 296 / 779 (38.0)
Country p = 0.003 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 Hungary 31 / 374 (8.3) 80 / 370 (21.6) 129 / 380 (34.0)
 Sweden 7 / 299 (2.3) 24 / 295 (8.1) 98 / 290 (33.8)
 France 20 / 381 (5.3) 66 / 383 (17.2) 117 / 377 (31.0)
 UK 31 / 368 (8.4) 115 / 367 (31.3) 203 / 369 (55.0)
Smoking p = 0.057 p = 0.943 p = 0.689
 Daily or occasional smoker 28 / 330 (8.5) 64 / 320 (20.0) 124 / 329 (37.7)
 Non-smoker 61 / 1092 (5.6) 221 / 1095 (20.2) 423 / 1087 (38.9)
Frequency of alcohol drinking p = 0.021 p = 0.078 p = 0.249
 “never” (abstainer) 19 / 164 (11.6) 46 / 163 (28.2) 71 / 163 (43.6)
 “once a month or less” 17 / 300 (5.7) 59 / 302 (19.5) 117 / 299 (39.1)
 “2–4 times a month” 20 / 457 (4.4) 80 / 453 (17.7) 159 / 457 (34.8)
 “2–3 times a week” 19 / 343 (5.5) 65 / 342 (19.0) 131 / 341 (38.4)
 “4 times a week or more” 14 / 156 (9.0) 35 / 153 (22.9) 68 / 154 (44.2)
 “don’t know” (non-abstainer) 0 / 2 (0.0) 0 / 2 (0.0) 1 / 2 (50.0)
Downsizing exposure p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 Workers with no downsizing 27 / 664 (4.1) 82 / 658 (12.5) 212 / 659 (32.2)
 Strategic downsizing (no CR): redeployed 6 / 121 (5.0) 35 / 121 (28.9) 60 / 122 (49.2)
 Strategic downsizing (no CR): reemployed 7 / 111 (6.3) 31 / 111 (27.9) 58 / 111 (52.2)
 Reactive medium-scale downsizing (CR 10–19%): reemployed 1 / 69 (1.4) 8 / 72 (11.1) 17 / 70 (24.3)
 Reactive medium-scale downsizing (CR 10–19%): survivor 7 / 98 (7.1) 21 / 96 (21.9) 43 / 96 (44.8)
 Reactive medium-scale downsizing (CR 10–19%): unemployed 12 / 106 (11.3) 33 / 107 (30.8) 34 / 104 (32.7)
 Reactive large-scale downsizing (CR ≥20%): reemployed 8 / 41 (19.5) 15 / 40 (37.5) 18 / 40 (45.0)
 Reactive large-scale downsizing (CR ≥20%): survivor 15 / 124 (12.1) 31 / 122 (25.4) 68 / 125 (54.4)
 Reactive large-scale downsizing (CR ≥20%): unemployed 3 / 64 (4.7) 19 / 63 (30.2) 26 / 65 (40.0)
 Reactive downsizing, scale unknown 3 / 24 (12.5) 10 / 25 (40.0) 11 / 24 (45.8)
  1. Note: These analyses are restricted to respondents with complete data on psychological ill health symptoms. In the Swedish sample, prevalence of emotional exhaustion was calculated after handling the partial non-response on one MBI-GS item
  2. Abbreviations: n number of respondents with mental health conditions, N number of participants with complete responses, (%) prevalence in percent, CR presence and extent of compulsory redundancies measured as percent reduction in personnel
  3. p values for Pearson’s χ2 test of between-group differences (in bold type: considered statistically significant if p < 0.05)