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Table 3 Critical appraisal of fidelity measures

From: Assessment of fidelity in individual level behaviour change interventions promoting physical activity among adults: a systematic review

BCC (number of studies identified) Criteria (Bellg et al., 2004; Borrelli, 2011b; Borrelli et al., 2005) Number of studies meeting criteria  
Design (0) Prior to study implementation, investigators, and optimally a protocol review group or panel of experts, should review their protocols or treatment manuals to ensure that the active ingredients of the intervention are fully operationalized. N/A  
The degree to which the measures reflect the hypothesized theoretical constructs and mechanisms of action should be assessed. N/A  
Training (2) Ensure providers are trained to a well-defined, a priori performance criterion. Provider role-plays with standardized patients should be evaluated for both adherence to treatment components and adherence to process (e.g., interactional style). 1 [46]
Delivery (20) Adherence to treatment components and competence to deliver the treatment in the manner specified 4 [34, 37, 48, 53].
Direct observation evaluated according to criteria developed a priori 8 [33, 34, 37, 38, 43, 48, 49, 51]
Raters of the audiotapes or videotapes should be skilled in treatment delivery as well as in more subtle aspects of the intervention and the treatment manual. 6 [34, 36, 37, 48, 51, 53]
  Raters of the audiotapes or videotapes should be independent of the study 3 [37, 38, 53]
  Raters of the audiotapes or videotapes should be blind to treatment assignment, participant progress and outcomes, and provider identity. 0  
  Interrater reliability of raters of the audiotapes or videotapes should be conducted 3 [38, 43, 51]
Receipt (3) Assessment of treatment receipt involves verifying the participants’ understanding of the information provided in the treatment and verifying that they can use the skills and recommendations discussed. This could include written verification (pre–post-tests), using audio visuals (repeat information orally and visually), and behavioural strategies (role-plays skills with feedback). 1 [49]
Enactment (7) Objective observation to determine if participants were using behaviour change techniques in relevant day to day settings 1 [35]
All [21] Psychometric properties 6 [34, 36, 37, 48, 50, 53]