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Table 2 Cross-sectionala and prospectiveb associations of dietary intake (mediator), TV viewing (independent) and zBMI (outcome) (n = 259)

From: Cross-sectional and prospective mediating effects of dietary intake on the relationship between sedentary behaviour and body mass index in adolescents

Outcome: zBMI c`-coefficient (direct) β (95% CI) a-coefficient β (95% CI) b-coefficient β (95% CI) ab/indirect (mediated/indirect)c
Independent: TV viewing Uncorrected β (95% CI) Bias-corrected β (95% CI)
Cross-sectional mediators
 Discretionary food (freq/day) 0.05 (−0.02, 0.13) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.05) −0.39 (−0.65, −0.13)** −0.04 (−0.18, 0.10) −0.04 (−0.23, 0.12)
 SSB (freq/day) 0.05 (−0.03, 0.13) 0.02 (−0.03, 0.07) 0.03 (−0.15, 0.22) 0.01 (−0.04, 0.05) 0.01 (−0.07, 0.09)
 Takeaway food (freq/week) 0.05 (−0.02, 0.13) 0.06 (0.01, 0.12)* −0.07 (−0.24, 0.09) −0.05 (−0.16, 0.07) −0.05 (−0.22, 0.06)
Prospective mediators
 At baseline      
  Discretionary foods (freq/day) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.05) 0.02 (−0.09, 0.13) 0.01 (−0.01, 0.02) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.04)
  SSB (freq/day) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02) 0.02 (−0.03, 0.07) 0.03 (−0.04, 0.11) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.03) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.04)
  Takeaway food (freq/week) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02) 0.07 (0.01, 0.12)* −0.01 (−0.07, 0.06) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.05) −0.01 (−0.06, 0.05)
 At follow-up      
  Discretionary foods (freq/day) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02) 0.02 (−0.02, 0.07) −0.04 (−0.13, 0.06) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02) −0.01 (−0.06, 0.02)
  SSB (freq/day) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02) −0.01 (−0.05, 0.04) 0.03 (−0.06, 0.11) −0.001 (−0.01, 0.01) −0.001 (−0.03, 0.02)
  Takeaway food (freq/week) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.02) 0.10 (0.04, 0.16)* 0.02 (−0.05, 0.08) 0.02 (−0.05, 0.08) 0.02 (−0.04, 0.09)
  1. aCross-sectional total effects (c-pathway) of TV viewing and zBMI β = 0.05 (95% CI -0.03 to 0.13), adjusting for age, sex, mother’s education and pubertal status. bProspective total effects (c-pathway) of TV viewing and zBMI β = −0.01 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.02), adjusting for age, sex, mother’s education, pubertal status and zBMI at baseline. cDue to the small units of measure, the indirect effects have been multiplied by 10
  2. Significant **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05. TV: television; SSB: sugar-sweetened beverages; zBMI: body mass index z-score; freq: frequency