Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of MMT clients with HIV, HCV and co-infections in Guangxi (2004 ~ 2014)

From: Spatial distribution of HIV, HCV, and co-infections among drug users in the southwestern border areas of China (2004–2014): a cohort study of a national methadone maintenance treatment program

Characteristic Total (n = 31,015) HIV clients (n = 4046) HCV clients (n = 22,488) Co-infected clients (n = 3708)
No. of clients Proportion (%) No. of clients Proportion (%) No. of clients Proportion (%) No. of clients Proportion (%)
Gender    χ2 = 37.75, P < 0.001 χ2 = 96.01, P < 0.001 χ2 = 118.25, P < 0.001
 Male 28,036 90.39 3550 87.74 20,101 89.39 3249 87.62
 Female 2979 9.61 496 12.26 2387 10.61 459 12.38
Occupation    χ2 = 49.68, P < 0.001 χ2 = 505.12, P < 0.001 χ2 = 558.71, P < 0.001
 Unemployed 17,125 55.21 2415 59.69 13,143 58.44 2216 59.76
 Farmers 9109 29.37 1135 28.05 5812 25.85 1034 27.89
 Others 4781 15.42 496 12.26 3533 15.71 458 12.35
Ethnic groups    χ2 = 111.43, P < 0.001 χ2 = 419.45, P < 0.001 χ2 = 472.78, P < 0.001
 Han 20,860 67.26 3004 74.24 15,876 70.60 2779 74.95
 Zhuang 9399 30.30 990 24.47 6093 27.09 880 23.73
 Others 756 2.44 52 1.29 519 2.31 49 1.32
Marital status    χ2 = 144.04, P < 0.001 χ2 = 141.98, P < 0.001 χ2 = 242.64, P < 0.001
 Married 13,375 43.12 1426 35.25 9329 41.48 1305 35.19
 Unmarried 15,055 48.54 2155 53.26 11,079 49.27 1972 53.18
 Others 2585 8.34 465 11.49 2080 9.25 431 11.63
Education    χ2 = 74.10, P < 0.001 χ2 = 27.92, P < 0.001 χ2 = 89.74, P < 0.001
 Primary level education or below 8274 26.68 1276 31.54 6129 27.25 1168 31.50
 Junior secondary school 19,461 62.75 2446 60.45 13,911 61.86 2238 60.36
 Senior school or above 3280 10.57 324 8.01 2448 10.89 302 8.14
Living status    χ2 = 81.61, P < 0.001 χ2 = 183.78, P < 0.001 χ2 = 230.68, P < 0.001
 With family or relatives 24,734 79.75 3045 75.26 17,630 78.40 2796 75.40
 With friends 971 3.13 108 2.67 644 2.86 96 2.59
 Alone 2138 6.89 363 8.97 1623 7.22 321 8.66
 Others 3172 10.23 530 13.10 2591 11.52 495 13.35
Living expense source in the past six months    χ2 = 103.70, P < 0.001 χ2 = 144.68, P < 0.001 χ2 = 212.56, P < 0.001
 From family or friends 16,582 53.46 2257 55.78 11,950 53.14 2051 55.31
 From casual wages 8067 26.01 877 21.68 5623 25.00 805 21.71
 From fixed wages 1399 4.51 117 2.89 986 4.39 108 2.91
 Others 4967 16.02 795 19.65 3929 17.47 744 20.07
Age of initial drug use (years)    χ2 = 194.65, P < 0.001 χ2 = 223.97, P < 0.001 χ2 = 358.48, P < 0.001
  < 24 17,372 56.01 2677 66.16 13,180 58.61 2476 66.77
  ≥ 24 13,643 43.99 1369 33.84 9308 41.39 1232 33.23
Length of drug use at baseline (years)    χ2 = 1250.60, P < 0.001 χ2 = 3413.13, P < 0.001 χ2 = 4156.72, P < 0.001
  < 5 9763 31.48 411 10.16 5011 22.28 340 9.17
 5–10 7655 24.68 922 22.79 5846 26.00 852 22.98
  > 10 13,597 43.84 2713 67.05 11,631 51.72 2516 67.85
Route of drug use in the past six months    χ2 = 674.72, P < 0.001 χ2 = 6329.18, P < 0.001 χ2 = 6595.77, P < 0.001
Injection intravenously only 21,177 68.28 3446 85.17 18,015 80.11 3209 86.54
Smoking or sniffing 7957 25.66 382 9.44 3055 13.58 297 8.01
Injection mixed with other 1881 6.06 218 5.39 1418 6.31 202 5.45
Receptive sharing of syringes with others    χ2 = 2840.14, P < 0.001 χ2 = 1566.26, P < 0.001 χ2 = 3753.07, P < 0.001
 Yes 7211 23.25 2276 56.25 6543 29.10 2137 57.63
 No 23,804 76.75 1770 43.75 1,5945 70.90 1571 42.37
Frequency of drug use in the past month    χ2 = 208.72, P < 0.001 χ2 = 196.19, P < 0.001 χ2 = 195.95, P < 0.001
 0 times/day 2485 8.01 154 3.81 1615 7.18 143 3.86
 1–3 times/day 18,386 59.28 2278 56.30 13,147 58.46 2077 56.01
 4–6 times/day 8303 26.77 1289 31.86 6322 28.11 1220 32.90
  > 6 times/day 1489 4.80 288 7.12 1188 5.29 245 6.61
 Missing 352 1.14 37 0.91 216 0.96 23 0.62
HIV status at baseline    χ2 = 855.02, P < 0.001
 Positive 4046 13.05    3708 16.49   
 Negative 26,969 86.95    18,780 83.51   
HCV status at baseline    χ2 = 855.02, P < 0.001
 Positive 22,488 72.51 3708 91.65     
 Negative 8527 27.49 338 8.35     
HIV/HCV co-infection at baseline   
 Double positive 3708 11.96       
 Double negative 8189 26.40       
 Single positive and negative 19,118 61.64       
Urine morphine testing results at baseline    χ2 = 24.79, P < 0.001 χ2 = 13.21, P = 0.001 χ2 = 33.50, P < 0.001
 Positive 17,383 56.05 2442 60.36 12,622 56.13 2190 59.06
 Negative 13,085 42.19 1562 38.61 9507 42.28 1445 38.97
 Missing 547 1.76 42 1.04 359 1.59 73 1.97