Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of included studies (By taxonomy)

From: Increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction: a systematic review and taxonomy

Primary Domainsa
  All-Cause Mortality Outcome Specific Trends Over Time Explanatory Pathways Total
  n = 68(%) n = 89(%) n = 54 (%) n = 51 (%) 262
Year of publication
 Before-1990 4(5.9) 2(2.2) 1(1.9) 1(2.0) 8(3.1)
 1991–2000 10(14.7) 15(16.9) 2(3.7) 6(11.8) 33(12.6)
 2001–2010 40(58.8) 31(34.8) 20(37.0) 20(39.2) 111(42.4)
 2011-present 14(20.6) 41(46.1) 31(57.4) 24(47.1) 110(42.0)
Study Population
 Survey/Longitudinal 28(41.2) 39(43.8) 3(5.6) 26(51.0) 96(36.6)
 Census data 39(57.4) 38(42.7) 51(94.4) 24(47.1) 152(58.0)
 Other 3(4.4) 14(15.7) 0(0.0) 1(2.0) 18(6.9)
Study Design
 Cohort 48(70.6) 73(82.0) 25(46.3) 42(82.4) 188(71.8)
 Cross-sectional 19(27.9) 15(16.9) 28(51.9) 6(11.8) 68(26.0)
 Mixed methods 1(1.5) 1(1.1) 1(1.9) 3(5.9) 6(2.3)
Region of Study
 North America 27(39.7) 24(27.0) 19(35.2) 9(17.6) 79(30.2)
 U.S. 24(35.6) 21(23.6) 19(35.2) 9(17.6) 73(27.9)
 South America 1(1.5) 2(2.2) 2(3.7) 1(2.0) 6(2.3)
 Europe 30(44.1) 51(57.3) 29(53.7) 35(68.6) 145(55.3)
 Asia 11(16.2) 14(15.7) 4(7.4) 6(11.8) 35(13.4)
 NZ/Australia 0(0.0) 3(3.4) 2(3.7) 1(2.0) 6(2.3)
 Africa 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0)
Number of Countries
 Single 65(95.6) 78(87.6) 50(92.6) 47(92.2) 240(91.6)
 Multiple 3(4.4) 11(12.4) 4(7.4) 4(7.8) 22(8.4)
Educational Association
 Significant 24(35.3) 35(39.3) 26(48.1) 11(21.6) 96(36.6)
 Mixed 30(44.1) 27(30.3) 16(29.6) 27(52.9) 100(38.2)
 Not Significant 15(22.1) 27(30.3) 11(20.4) 13(25.5) 66(25.2)
Stratified by age 30(44.1) 23(25.8) 19(35.2) 10(19.6) 82(31.3)
Stratified by race 8(11.8) 7(7.9) 11(20.4) 4(7.8) 30(11.5)
Stratified by gender 40(58.8) 39(43.8) 50(92.6) 32(62.7) 161(61.5)
Conditioned on SES 11(16.2) 5(5.6) 2(3.7) 3(5.9) 21(8.0)
  1. aTotals for some categories may exceed 100% as articles are able to fall into more than one category