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Table 1 Key structural and methodological differences between LiST and Spectrum-Malaria

From: Impact of malaria interventions on child mortality in endemic African settings: comparison and alignment between LiST and Spectrum-Malaria model

Aspect LiST Spectrum-Malaria
Health outcomes considered, that are impacted by malaria interventions • Malaria-attributable, other-cause and all-cause mortality in children 0–4 years (separately for neonatal, 1–12 months and 13–59 months sub-groups) • Maternal deaths • Stillbirths • Malaria-attributable mortality and case incidence, in 0–4 years, 5–14 years and 15+ years; • Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence (PfPR), in children 2–9 years
Interventions modelled • Vector control (IRS and/or ITNs) • Case management, uncomplicated malaria cases • Intermittent Preventive Therapy for pregnant women • ITNs • IRS • Case management, uncomplicated malaria cases (CMU) • Case management, severe malaria cases • Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis (SMC) in children 3–59 months
Determinants of impact of malaria intervention scale-up Proportional reduction from baseline burden level, for a given proportional increase in intervention coverage – same within and across all countries Proportional reduction from baseline burden level, varying with baseline endemicity (PfPR), seasonality in malaria transmission, and baseline and scale-up coverage levels of ITNs, IRS, CMU and SMC, which act in interaction), calculated at province-level and then aggregated to national level [13]
Determinants of impact, for a given coverage increase Fixed effectiveness value (for ITNs and CMU: from sources below), for all years and all countries [48] • Baseline malaria endemicity (PfPR in 2–9 years), • Seasonality in malaria transmission, • Baseline and scale-up coverage levels of other malaria interventions that have time-dynamic impacts (ITNs, IRS, SMC, and management of uncomplicated cases), and their variations between provinces, within and across countries [13].
Synergy or saturation across interventions? No Yes [13].
Saturation of incremental impacts at higher coverages? No Yes [13].
Time path of impact No variation over time: impact is immediate from the year of scale-up; the post-intervention mortality level stays constant thereafter until coverage changes again • Impact modelled with a 1-year lag after intervention scale-up; • Separate impact functions for short term (years 2–6 after scale-up) and long term (years 7–15 after scale-up) [12, 14].
Basis and source of coverage-impact relationship: ITNs United Nationals Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), meta-analysis of randomized ITN trials [9] Dynamic transmission model simulations for a wide range of sub-Sahara-Africa like scenarios, varying in endemicity, seasonality and baseline intervention coverages, performed in the OpenMalaria model – summarized in multi-variate statistical models [13]. OpenMalaria intervention effectiveness assumptions were in turn based on meta-analysis of randomized ITN trials [9], and review of observational treatment impact studies [18, 49]
Basis and source of coverage-impact relationship: case management Meta-analyses of published observational studies and a previous Delphi estimate [21]
  1. Differences in data sources, intervention coverage definitions and country baseline parameter values are described in Tables 1 and 2