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Table 1 Measures used to assess mediators in the home environment setting

From: The mediating role of the home environment in relation to parental educational level and preschool children’s screen time: a cross-sectional study

Measures Survey Items in the Parental Questionnaire Scale and Range Descriptives (N)
Access to screens at homea Does your child have access to the following equipment at home?: television, DVD, video, tablet, smartphone, and computer. Screen availability score was formed by summing all the equipment that the child had access to in the household. Mean = 5 devices, SD = 1 device
(N = 827)
Descriptive norm for children’s screen time I think a suitable amount of daily screen time for children aged 3–6 years is a maximum of ____. Open-ended answers in hours and minutes were transformed to minutes and treated as continuous in analyses. Mean = 88 min, SD = 36 min
Satisfaction of children’s screen time I am pleased with my child’s screen time. The answer options ranged from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Mean = 4.0, SD = 1.0
(N = 795)
Rules for limiting children’s screen time Do you have limits for how much time your child can spend a) watching television and b) using other electronic devices? The three answer options were “yes,” “no,” and “don’t have the equipment.” This question was recoded so that “don’t have the equipment” answers [for the television N = 20 (2.5%) and for other equipment N = 15 (2%)] were set as missing values. Yes (0) = 74% (N = 565), No (1) = 26% (N = 197)
Parental screen time in front of children About how many hours per day do YOU use electronic devices during leisure time when your child is around? a) during weekdays and b) during weekends Answer options (per day): 1 = none, 2 = less than 30 min, 3 = 30 min–1 h, 4 = 1–2 h, 5 = 3–4 h, 6 = 5 h or more. The items were recoded so that 1 = less than 30 min, 2 = 30–60 min, 3 = more than 60 min, and they were combined into one variable. This sum variable was recoded into three categories: 1 = less than 30 min, 2 = 30–60 min, 3 = more than 60 min. Less than 30 min (1) = 33%
30–60 min (2) = 40%
More than 60 min (3) = 27%
(N = 796)
Parental importance for limiting children’s screen time (two items)b It is important for me to limit my child’s screen time; I make sure that there are other activities available for my child to do instead of using electronic devices. The answer options ranged from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
The statements were combined and divided by two.
Cronbach alpha = 0.30
Mean = 4.4; SD = 0.60
Parental attitude toward societal pressures for screen time (three items)b There is pressure from society to purchase and use different electronic devices; sports as a hobby and the related costs (e.g., equipment, materials, subscription fees) are too expensive; it is important for my child to learn how to use electronic devices because I am not very good at using them myself. The answer options ranged from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
The statements were combined and divided by three.
Cronbach alpha = 0.399
Mean = 2.8; SD = 0.80
Parental self-efficacy for limiting children’s screen time (three items)b I find it difficult to limit my child’s screen time if he/she does not want it limited and is nagging; I find it difficult to restrain myself from using electronic devices when my child is around; I am concerned about my child’s use of electronic devices. The answer options ranged from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
The statements were combined and divided by three.
Cronbach alpha = 0.462
Mean = 1.9, SD = 0.74
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. aReported in the screen-time diary
  3. bBased on loadings in the factor analysis