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Table 4 Associations between maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s motor skills in the lowest tertile at 3 and 5 years

From: Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa)

  Risk for motor skills score in the lowest tertile
At 3 years At 5 years
N total/N with low skills (%) OR 95% CI N total/N with low skills (%) OR 95% CI
Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy
Crude model    
 No use 4428/1541 (34.8%) Ref.   1177/241 (20.5%) Ref.  
 Any use 40,961/13,193 (32.2%) 0.89 0.83, 0.95 16,133/3685(22.8%) 1.15 0.99, 1.33
 Low use 17,690/5945 (33.6%) 0.95 0.88, 1.02 6817/1562 (22.9%) 1.15 0.99, 1.34
 Medium use 21,292/6669 (31.3%) 0.85 0.80, 0.91 8527/1936 (22.7%) 1.14 0.98, 1.33
 High use 1979/579 (29.3%) 0.77 0.69, 0.87 789/187 (23.7%) 1.21 0.97, 1.50
p- for trend   <0.001   0.247
Adjusted model 1
 No use 4428/1541 (34.8%) Ref.   1177/241 (20.5%) Ref.  
 Any use 40,961/13,193 (32.2%) 0.82 0.76, 0.87 16,133/3685 (22.8%) 1.02 0.88, 1.19
 Low use 17,690/5945 (33.6%) 0.88 0.82, 0.94 6817/1562 (22.9%) 1.07 0.91, 1.24
 Medium use 21,292/6669 (31.3%) 0.74 0.69, 0.80 8527/1936 (22.7%) 0.98 0.83, 1.14
 High use 1979/579 (29.3%) 0.64 0.57, 0.72 789/187 (23.7%) 1.00 0.81, 1.25
p- for trend   <0.001   0.152
Adjusted model 2
 No use 375/132 (35.2%) Ref.   311/74 (23.8%) Ref.  
 Any use 10,510/3544 (33.7%) 0.93 0.75, 1.16 8642/2123 (24.6%) 1.11 0.85, 1.46
 Low use 3688/1323 (35.9%) 1.01 0.81, 1.27 3010/783 (26.0%) 1.17 0.89, 1.55
 Medium use 6220/2040 (32.8%) 0.89 0.71, 1.11 5131/1214 (23.4%) 1.06 0.81, 1.40
 High use 602/181 (30.1%) 0.79 0.60, 1.05 501/126 (24.2%) 1.20 0.85, 1.67
p- for trend   0.001   0.552
  1. Bold fonts indicate statistical significant results, that are either confidence intervals that do not include 1 or p-for trend<0.05
  2. N (%) represent the number (and percentages) of children with low motor skills (score in the lowest tertile at 3 years and score in the lowest tertile at 5 years) in each category of cell phone use. Total number of included mother-child pairs at 3 years are: n = 45,389 in crude and adjusted model 1and n = 10,885 in adjusted model 2. Total number of included mother-child pairs at 5 years are: n = 17,310 in crude and adjusted model 1and n = 8953 in adjusted model 2
  3. Adjusted model 1 includes parity, maternal age and education and year of delivery
  4. Adjusted model 2 includes the variables of adjusted model 1 and maternal extrovert personality score in tertiles (low/average/high)