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Table 2 Associations between maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s lower sentence complexity at 3 years

From: Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa)

  Risk for lower sentence complexity at 3 years
N (%) of cases OR 95% CI
Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy
Crude model (n = 45,389)
 No use (n = 4428) 1232 (28%) Ref.  
 Any use (n = 40,961) 9028 (22%) 0.73 0.68, 0.79
 Low use (n = 17,690) 4216 (24%) 0.81 0.75, 0.87
 Medium use (n = 21,292) 4443 (21%) 0.68 0.64, 0.74
 High use (n = 1979) 369 (19%) 0.59 0.52, 0.68
p-for trend   <0.001
Adjusted model 1 (n = 45,389)
 No use (n = 4428) 1232 (28%) Ref.  
 Any use (n = 40,961) 9028 (22%) 0.83 0.77, 0.89
 Low use (n = 17,690) 4216 (24%) 0.87 0.81, 0.94
 Medium use (n = 21,292) 4443 (21%) 0.78 0.72, 0.84
 High use (n = 1979) 369 (19%) 0.71 0.62, 0.81
p-for trend   <0.001
Adjusted model 2 (n = 10,885)
 No use (n = 375) 111 (30%) Ref.  
 Any use (n = 10,510) 2155 (21%) 0.73 0.58, 0.92
 Low use (n = 3688) 798 (22%) 0.73 0.58, 0.93
 Medium use (n = 6220) 1241 (20%) 0.72 0.57, 0.92
 High use (n = 602) 116 (19%) 0.75 0.55, 1.03
p-for trend   0.173
  1. Bold fonts indicate statistical significant results, that are either confidence intervals that do not include 1 or p-for trend <0.05
  2. N (%) represents the number (and percentages) of children with lower sentence complexity (incomplete grammar; moderate language delay; severe language delay; speech problems) in each category of cell phone use
  3. Adjusted model 1 includes parity, maternal age and education and year of delivery
  4. Adjusted model 2 includes the variables of adjusted model 1 and maternal extrovert personality score (low/average/high)