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Table 1 Distribution of maternal, pregnancy and child characteristics by category of cell phone use in early pregnancy

From: Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa)

  Cell phone use in early pregnancy (n = 45,389)
No use
(n = 4428)
Any use
(40,961)
N % N %
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age
  < 30 years 1433 32.4 18,011 44.0
  30–34 years 2275 51.4 18,053 44.1
   ≥ 35 years 720 16.2 4897 11.9
 Year of delivery
  1999–2004 3208 74.6 13,465 33.0
  2005–2006 834 19.4 13,562 33.2
  2007–2009 256 6.0 13,823 33.8
 Parity
  Primiparous 1364 29.5 21,264 50.0
  Multiparous 3255 70.5 21,240 50.0
 Education
   ≤ 12 years 1507 34.0 11,111 27.1
  13–16 years 2026 45.8 18,177 44.4
   ≥ 17 years 895 20.2 11,673 28.5
 Parental income
  Both parents low income 1698 39.4 10,196 25.4
  Either parent high income 2049 47.5 16,714 41.6
  Both parents high income 567 13.1 13,239 33.0
  Missing 926 (2.0%)    
 Maternal occupation
  Public sector/military 2372 53.7 19,292 47.2
  Private sector/self-employed 1274 28.9 16,161 39.5
  Other 767 17.4 5424 13.3
  Missing 99 (0.2%)    
 Smoking prior to pregnancy
  No 3537 79.9 30,366 74.1
  Occasionally 282 6.4 4129 10.1
  Daily 609 13.7 6466 15.8
 Alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy
  Never/less than once per month 1998 49.7 13,789 35.0
  1–3 times/month 1317 32.7 14,328 36.4
  ≥ 1 time/week 707 17.6 11,289 28.6
  Missing 1961 (4.3%)    
 Maternal extrovert personality score
  Low 140 37.3 2228 21.2
  Average 210 56.0 6943 66.1
  High 25 6.7 1339 12.7
  Missing 34,504 (76.0%)    
Parental phone use
  Frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancya
  Low use 0 0 17,690 43.2
  Medium use 0 0 21,292 52.0
  High use 0 0 1979 4.8
 Maternal cell phone use in late pregnancy
  No use 3340 76.7 1885 4.7
  Low use 987 22.7 17,524 43.8
  Medium use 27 0.6 19,287 48.2
  High use 1 0.02 1288 3.2
  Missing 1050 (2.3%)    
 Paternal cell phone use during pregnancy
  No use 620 22.7 621 3.5
  Low use 1023 37.4 4404 24.9
  Medium use 956 35.0 10,509 59.4
  High use 133 4.9 2158 12.2
  Missing 24,965 (55.0%)    
  1. p-value <0.001 for chi-square test for all the shown comparisons
  2. aPercentages correspond to within rows percentages, not columns