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Table 3 Results of logistic regressions exploring the association between self-reported need for social care and sociodemographic characteristics. n = 6462 in all modelsa

From: Estimating the variation in need for community-based social care by body mass index in England and associated cost: population-based cross-sectional study

  Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratios Model 1 (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratios Model 2 (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratios Model 3 (95% CI)
BMI (excludes missing) 1.05 (1.04 to 1.07)**    
BMI 1.05 (1.04 to 1.07)** 0.36 (0.21 to 0.62)** 0.48 (0.27 to 0.85)* 0.44 (0.25 to 0.78)**
BMI2   1.03 (1.02 to 1.05)** 1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)* 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05)**
BMI3   1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)** 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)* 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)*
BMI category
  < 18.5 2.61 (0.22 to 0.67)**    
 18.5 to <25 Ref    
 25 to <30 0.95 (0.80 to 1.12)    
 30 to <40 1.75 (1.47 to 2.08)**    
 40+ 3.19 (2.13 to 4.77)**    
 Missing 4.03 (3.38 to 4.81)**    
Limiting long term illness
 No Ref   Ref  
 Yes 14.18 (12.40 to 16.21)**   12.70 (10.99 to 14.68)**  
Limiting long term illness excluding any diabetes
 No Ref    Ref
  Yes 7.81 (6.93 to 8.79)**    7.21 (6.34 to 8.21)**
Limiting illness excluding any diabetes or heart-related/stroke
 No Ref    
 Yes 5.73 (5.10 to 6.45)**    
Sex     
 Female Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Male 0.61 (0.55 to 0.67)** 0.70 (0.63 to 0.79)** 0.70 (0.61 to 0.80)** 0.74 (0.65 to 0.84)**
Age (years)
 65–69 Ref Ref Ref Ref
 70–74 1.60 (1.37 to 1.88)** 1.60 (1.35 to 1.88) 1.50 (1.25 to 1.81)** 1.56 (1.31 to 1.86)**
 75–79 2.18 (1.83 to 2.59)** 2.10 (1.75 to 2.51)** 1.89 (1.54 to 2.31)** 1.99 (1.64 to 2.41)**
 80–84 4.71 (3.94 to 5.64)** 5.03 (4.15 to 6.09)** 3.99 (3.16 to 5.03)** 4.30 (3.47 to 5.34)**
 85+ 9.08 (7.42 to 11.11)** 9.89 (7.92 to 12.36)** 9.29 (7.21 to 11.98)** 9.17 (7.24 to 11.63)**
Ethnic Origin
 White Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Asian 1.81 (1.18 to 2.76)** 1.96 (1.23 to 3.12)** 1.81 (1.04 to 3.15)* 2.70 (1.56 to 4.67)**
 Black 1.05 (0.65 to 1.72) 0.66 (0.39 to 1.10) 0.70 (0.42 to 1.16) 0.80 (0.49 to 1.31)
 Other 1.09 (0.54 to 2.17) 1.26 (0.62 to 2.57) 1.38 (0.49 to 3.92) 1.41 (0.51 to 3.93)
 Missing 1.91 (0.92 to 3.96) 1.19 (0.50 to 2.83) 1.20 (0.50 to 2.86) 1.38 (0.61 to 3.17)
IMD quintile
 1 least deprived Ref Ref Ref Ref
 2 1.29 (1.09 to 1.51)** 1.11 (0.93 to 1.33) 1.08 (0.87 to 1.32) 1.11 (0.91 to 1.35)
 3 1.45 (1.22 to 1.72)** 1.28 (1.07 to 1.53)** 1.10 (0.90 to 1.35) 1.17 (0.96 to 1.43)
 4 1.94 (1.62 to 2.31)** 1.55 (1.27 to 1.88)** 1.35 (1.09 to 1.67)** 1.46 (1.18 to 1.79)**
 5 most deprived 3.00 (2.47 to 3.63)** 2.42 (1.94 to 3.03)** 2.02 (1.58 to 2.58)** 2.22 (1.76 to 2.81)**
Equivalised income tertile
 Lowest Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77)** 0.81 (0.69 to 0.95)* 0.88 (0.73 to 1.05) 0.83 (0.70 to 0.99)*
 Highest 0.33 (0.27 to 0.41)** 0.49 (0.39 to 0.61)** 0.62 (0.48 to 0.81)** 0.56 (0.44 to 0.71)**
 Missing 0.95 (0.82 to 1.09) 0.86 (0.74 to 1.01) 0.97 (0.81 to 1.16) 0.94 (0.79 to 1.11)
Marital status
 Not married or cohabiting Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Married or cohabiting 0.44 (0.39 to 0.49)** 0.67 (0.55 to 0.82)** 0.69 (0.56 to 0.86)** 0.68 (0.55 to 0.83)**
Adults in household 0.75 (0.68 to 0.84)** 1.19 (1.02 to 1.38)* 1.06 (0.90 to 1.24) 1.09 (0.94 to 1.27)
Children in household 1.56 (1.12 to 2.19)** 1.24 (0.86 to 1.78) 1.58 (1.09 to 2.27)* 1.35 (0.96 to 1.89)
  1. a Model 2 is adjusted for limiting long term illness, in addition to the sociodemographic characteristics also considered in model 1; model 3 is the same as model 2 but uses a definition of long term illness which does not include diabetes
  2. ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05