Skip to main content

Table 1 General characteristics of study participants by gender

From: Metabolic syndrome and parental history of cardiovascular disease in young adults in urban Ghana

  All participants (n = 364) Males (n = 174) Females (n = 190) p
Age, years 24.9 ± 2.9 25 ± 2.7 24.7 ± 3.1 0.569
Smoking status, n (%)
 Current 26 (7.1) 23 (13.2) 3 (1.6) <0.001
 Former 39 (10.7) 32 (18.4) 7 (3.7) 0.03
 Never 299 (82.1) 119 (68.4) 180 (94.7) 0.74
Alcohol status, n (%)
 Current 77 (21.1) 59 (33.9) 18 (9.5) <0.001
 Former 87 (23.9) 67 (38.5) 20 (10.5) 0.03
 Never 200 (54.9) 48 (27.6) 152 (80) <0.001
Parental history of CVDs, n (%)
 Diabetes 60 (16.5) 23 (13.2) 37 (19.5) 0.032
 Hypertension 74 (20.3) 26 (15) 48 (25.3) 0.017
 Cardiovascular diseases 90 (24.7) 16 (9.2) 74 (38.9) <0.001
Weight, kg 69.2 ± 9.9 68.1 ± 8.9 70.1 ± 10.7 0.054
Height, cm 167 ± 7 168 ± 7 166 ± 6 <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 24.9 ± 3.8 24.1 ± 3.3 25.6 ± 4 <0.001
Waist circumference, cm 88 ± 16 89 ± 16 86 ± 17 0.135
Hip circumference, cm 98 ± 16 96 ± 16 99 ± 15 0.025
Waist-hip ratio 0.91 ± 0.19 0.94 ± 0.2 0.88 ± 0.18 0.002
Body fat, % 26.7 ± 8.7 25.2 ± 7.6 28.1 ± 9.3 0.001
Visceral fat, % 5.6 ± 3.7 5.3 ± 3.5 4.6 ± 0.9 0.115
Systolic BP, mmHg 116 ± 12 113 ± 11 119 ± 13 <0.001
Diastolic BP, mmHg 75 ± 9 74 ± 8 76 ± 10 0.002
Pulse BP, mmHg 41 ± 8 40 ± 8 42 ± 8 <0.001
Mean BP, mmHg 89 ± 9 87 ± 8 91 ± 10 <0.001
FPG, mmol/l 4.9 ± 1.1 4.6 ± 0.9 5.2 ± 1.3 <0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.5 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 0.082
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 5.2 ± 1.1 5.2 ± 1.2 5.1 ± 1 0.389
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.1 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.5 0.877
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 3.6 ± 1.3 3.6 ± 1.3 3.6 ± 1.3 0.944
vLDL cholesterol, mmol/l 0.35 ± 0.15 0.34 ± 0.13 0.35 ± 0.17 0.505
Urea, mmol/l 3.4 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 0.8 0.197
Creatinine, mmol/l 91 ± 16 94.8 ± 17.9 88.5 ± 14.5 0.001
Metabolic syndrome, % 45 (12.4) 10 (5.7) 35 (18.4) 0.019
  1. CVDs cardiovascular diseases, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, vLDL very low density lipoprotein
\