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Table 1 Parameter values and the estimated population attributable fraction for colorectal cancer in Malaysia, 2013

From: Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia

Risk factor Description Prevalence% (95% CI)a Relative risk (95% CI) meta-analysis study for relative risk Colorectal cancer cases PAF% (95% CI) Preventable cases (95% CI)
Alcohol (current drinkers, ≥18 years) Men 13.7 (12.6–14.7) 1.62 (1.31–2.21) [22] 201 7.8 (3.8–12.9) 16 (8–26)
Women 0.4 (0.035–0.5) 1.54 (1.04–2.29) [22] 168 2.1 (0–6) 4 (0–9)
By ethnicity
Malay 0.8 (0.04–0.1) 1.52 (1.21–1.81) [22] 174 0.4 (0.01–0.8) 0 (0–1)
Chinese 26.6 (24.5–28.5) 1.52 (1.21–1.81) [22] 134 12.2 (4.9–8.0) 16 (7–25)
Indian 14.9 (12.8–17.8) 1.52 (1.21–1.81) [22] 22 7.2 (2.6–18.8) 2 (1–3)
Others 7.7 (4.7–10.8) 1.52 (1.21–1.81) [22] 35 3.8 (2.2–18.8) 2 (1–3)
Physical inactivity (an inverse of physical activity) Men 35.3 (34.3–36.3) 1.32 (1.22–1.41) [23] 201 10.1 (7–13) 20 (14–26)
Women 50.5 (49.5–51.5) 1.26 (1.13–1.41) [23] 168 11.6 (6–17.4) 20 (10–29)
By ethnicity
Malay 42.4 (41.3–43.4) 1.28 (1.16–1.42) [23] 174 10.6 (6.2–15.4) 18 (11–27)
Chinese 47.1 (45.6–48.7) 1.28 (1.16–1.42) [23] 134 11.7 (6.8–17) 16 (9–23)
Indian 44.5 (42.2–46.7) 1.28 (1.16–1.42) [23] 22 11.7 (6.3–16.4) 2 (1–4)
Others 41.3 (38.2–44.4) 1.28 (1.16–1.42) [23] 35 10.4 (5.8–15.8) 4 (1–5)
Overweight Men 29.7 (28.9–30.5) 1.16 (1.07–1.27) [21] 201 4.5 (2–7.6) 9 (4–15)
Women 28.6 (27.9–29.3) 1.03 (0.96–1.1) [21] 168 0.9 (0–2.8) 1 (0–5)
By ethnicity
Malay 29.8 (28.5–35.1) 1.09 (1.02–1.15) [21] 174 4.5 (2–7.6) 5 (1–6)
Chinese 28.5 (27.3–29.6) 1.09 (1.02–1.15) [21] 134 2.5 (0.5–4.3) 3 (1–6)
Indian 33.2 (31.4–35.1) 1.09 (1.02–1.15) [21] 22 2.9 (0.4–5) 1 (0–1)
Others 20.8 (18.8–23) 1.09 (1.02–1.15) [21] 35 2.9 (0.4–5) 1 (0–1)
  1. aExposure prevalence obtained from the national health and morbidity survey 2006 [14]; PAF: population attributable fraction; women including missing data
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