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Table 5 Associated injuries among adult motorcycle traffic accident trauma patients

From: The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score–matched study based on a trauma registry system

   Original cohort    Propensity score-matched cohort  
Associated injuries Helmet use
Yes n = 7735
Helmet use
No n = 863
Odds ratio
(95%)
P Helmet use
Yes n = 856
Helmet use
No n = 856
Odds ratio
(95%)
P
Head trauma, n (%)
 Neurologic deficit 69(0.9) 15(1.7) 0.5(0.29–0.89) 0.017 8(0.9) 15(1.8) 0.5(0.22–1.25) 0.142
 Cranial fracture 444(5.7) 175(20.3) 0.2(0.20–0.29) <0.001 53(6.2) 173(20.2) 0.3(0.19–0.36) <0.001
 Epidural hematoma (EDH) 283(3.7) 124(14.4) 0.2(0.18–0.28) <0.001 38(4.4) 12(14.5) 0.3(0.19–0.40) <0.001
 Subdural hematoma (SDH) 647(8.4) 245(28.4) 0.2(0.20–0.27) <0.001 87(10.2) 245(28.6) 0.3(0.22–0.37) <0.001
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) 770(10.0) 228(26.4) 0.3(0.26–0.36) <0.001 91(10.6) 227(26.5) 0.3(0.25–0.43) <0.001
 Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) 169(2.2) 48(5.6) 0.4(0.27–0.53) <0.001 19(2.2) 48(5.6) 0.4(0.22–0.66) <0.001
 Cerebral contusion 353(4.6) 120(13.9) 0.3(0.24–0.37) <0.001 43(5.0) 120(14.0) 0.3(0.23–0.47) <0.001
 Cervical vertebra fracture 60(0.8) 15(1.7) 0.4(0.25–0.78) 0.004 4(0.5) 15(1.8) 0.3(0.09–0.80) 0.011
Maxillofacial trauma, n (%)
 Nasal fracture 111(1.4) 20(2.3) 0.6(0.38–0.99) 0.045 12(1.4) 20(2.3) 0.6(0.29–1.22) 0.153
 Maxillary fracture 731(9.5) 123(14.3) 0.6(0.51–0.77) <0.001 85(9.9) 122(14.3) 0.7(0.49–0.89) 0.006
 Mandibular fracture 234(3.0) 39(4.5) 0.7(0.47–0.93) 0.018 21(2.5) 39(4.6) 0.5(0.31–0.90) 0.018