Skip to main content

Table 2 Hierarchical logistic regression analysis of associations between stunting and sociodemographic and clinical factors in under-five children, the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2013–14

From: Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14

Characteristics Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
aOR 95% CI   aOR 95% CI   aOR 95% CI  
Age
  < 6 months 1.00     1.00     1.00    
 6–11 months 1.89 1.12 3.19 * 1.84 1.07 3.19 * 1.84 1.09 3.13 *
 12–23 months 4.22 3.07 5.80 *** 4.35 3.14 6.03 *** 4.41 3.19 6.09 ***
 24–35 months 6.59 4.84 8.97 *** 6.34 4.60 8.74 *** 6.53 4.73 9.00 ***
 36–47 months 7.93 5.77 10.89 *** 8.78 6.41 12.03 *** 9.60 6.97 13.21 ***
 48–59 months 7.67 5.61 10.50 *** 7.63 5.59 10.42 *** 8.13 5.93 11.15 ***
Sex
 Male 1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Female 0.80 0.70 0.92 ** 0.81 0.70 0.94 ** 0.81 0.70 0.94 **
Distal factors
 Mother's education
  None 1.00     1.00     1.00    
  Primary 1.03 0.88 1.21   1.02 0.86 1.21   0.99 0.83 1.18  
  Secondary 0.80 0.67 0.96 * 0.84 0.68 1.03   0.83 0.67 1.04  
  Higher 0.45 0.22 0.93 * 0.64 0.31 1.32   0.63 0.31 1.28  
 Wealth quintile
  Richest 1.00     1.00     1.00    
  Richer 2.14 1.57 2.92 *** 1.92 1.32 2.79 ** 1.91 1.32 2.76 **
  Middle 2.84 1.98 4.07 *** 2.30 1.51 3.50 *** 2.38 1.56 3.62 ***
  Poorer 3.28 2.23 4.83 *** 2.43 1.54 3.82 *** 2.48 1.57 3.92 ***
  Poorest 3.93 2.70 5.72 *** 2.81 1.78 4.44 *** 2.90 1.83 4.57 ***
 Ethnicity
  Bakongo 1.00     1.00     1.00    
  Bas-kasai et kwilu-kwngo 0.93 0.52 1.67   0.82 0.45 1.49   0.92 0.51 1.66  
  Cuvette central 0.77 0.41 1.45   0.60 0.31 1.14   0.65 0.34 1.24  
  Ubangi et itimbiri 1.02 0.53 1.96   1.07 0.53 2.17   1.11 0.54 2.24  
  Uele lac albert 1.08 0.52 2.24   0.99 0.45 2.18   1.05 0.48 2.30  
  Basele-k, man. et kivu 0.96 0.45 2.05   0.91 0.41 2.01   0.93 0.41 2.11  
  Kasai, katanga, Tanganyika 1.00 0.54 1.85   0.94 0.49 1.79   1.08 0.57 2.05  
  others (lunda/pygmy/foreign) 1.28 0.62 2.68   1.23 0.60 2.50   1.61 0.83 3.13  
 Residence
  Urban 1.00         1.00    
  Rural 0.92 0.74 1.15   0.90 0.69 1.18   0.89 0.68 1.16  
 Province (New)
  Kinshasa 1.00         1.00    
  Kwango 1.81 0.93 3.50   1.62 0.78 3.36   1.42 0.69 2.91  
  Kwilu 1.29 0.73 2.27   1.41 0.74 2.67   1.29 0.69 2.43  
  Mai-ndombe 1.07 0.59 1.92   1.12 0.61 2.03   1.02 0.56 1.84  
  Kongo central 2.09 0.97 4.48   1.64 0.72 3.72   1.77 0.84 3.77  
  Equateur 0.58 0.27 1.24   0.60 0.26 1.40   0.55 0.24 1.28  
  Mongala 0.96 0.52 1.79   0.84 0.41 1.73   0.79 0.39 1.61  
  Nord-ubangi 1.22 0.60 2.51   1.33 0.61 2.91   1.23 0.56 2.69  
  Sud-ubangi 1.22 0.62 2.42   1.00 0.48 2.08   0.95 0.46 1.96  
  Tshuapa 1.71 0.86 3.41   2.54 1.24 5.18 * 2.33 1.15 4.72 *
  Kasai 2.82 1.60 4.97 *** 3.05 1.65 5.61 *** 2.75 1.49 5.07 **
  Kasai-central 1.89 1.02 3.49 * 1.74 0.88 3.46   1.48 0.74 2.96  
  Kasai-oriental 1.80 1.03 3.15 * 2.05 1.14 3.70 * 1.86 1.04 3.33 *
  Lomami 1.97 1.11 3.50 * 1.92 1.00 3.68 P = 0.05 1.64 0.86 3.11  
  Sankuru 2.49 1.32 4.69 ** 3.11 1.54 6.30 ** 2.87 1.41 5.82 **
  Haut-katanga 2.84 1.72 4.69 *** 2.55 1.46 4.46 ** 2.19 1.26 3.81 **
  Haut-lomami 1.77 0.95 3.30   1.28 0.63 2.57   1.13 0.57 2.25  
  Lualaba 1.60 0.85 2.99   1.33 0.62 2.85   1.09 0.47 2.49  
  Langanyka 1.92 1.04 3.57 * 1.57 0.78 3.17   1.32 0.67 2.62  
  Maniema 1.70 0.79 3.63   1.42 0.61 3.34   1.37 0.55 3.43  
  Nord-kivu 2.49 1.29 4.79 ** 2.04 0.97 4.29   2.09 0.98 4.47  
  Bas-uele 1.30 0.68 2.50   1.48 0.65 3.37   1.07 0.47 2.47  
  Haut-uele 1.41 0.60 3.32   1.56 0.62 3.91   1.40 0.55 3.52  
  Ituri 1.53 0.77 3.07   1.33 0.61 2.89   1.37 0.64 2.93  
  Tshopo 1.19 0.56 2.50   1.25 0.54 2.92   1.17 0.51 2.68  
  Sud-kivu 3.10 1.45 6.61 ** 2.57 1.15 5.73 * 2.54 1.11 5.83 *
Intermediate factors
 Mothers age at delivery
   < 20 years      1.00     1.00    
  20–34 years      0.78 0.59 1.03   0.70 0.52 0.94 *
   > =35 years      0.76 0.54 1.06   0.65 0.45 0.94 *
 Mother’s body mass index
  Thin      1.00     1.00    
  Normal      0.96 0.73 1.26   0.97 0.74 1.28  
  Overweight      0.73 0.49 1.10 * 0.73 0.48 1.09  
 Mother’s height      0.99 0.99 1.00 *** 0.60 0.53 0.68 ***
 Birth interval
  First Birth      1.00     1.00    
   < 24 months      1.17 0.86 1.59   1.38 1.06 1.79 *
   > 24 months      1.05 0.79 1.40   1.23 0.95 1.59  
 Family size
  Small(<4)      1.00     1.00    
  Medium (4–6 members)      0.91 0.69 1.19   0.92 0.70 1.21  
  Large (>8 members)      1.26 1.00 1.58 P = 0.05 1.18 0.93 1.48  
 Number of Children             
  1      1.00     1.00    
  2      1.08 0.87 1.35   1.09 0.88 1.36  
  3      1.21 0.93 1.59   1.21 0.92 1.58  
  4 or more      0.98 0.69 1.39   0.99 0.70 1.41  
Access to safe water      0.92 0.69 1.23   0.89 0.67 1.19  
Access to hygienic toilet      0.80 0.49 1.31   0.80 0.48 1.31  
Proximal factors
 Birth order
  1          1.00    
  2          0.74 0.49 1.13  
   > =3          1.01 0.64 1.57  
 Had diarrhea
  No          1.00    
  Yes          1.11 0.89 1.39  
 Breastfeeding within first hour
  No          1.00    
  Yes          0.82 0.70 0.95 **
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for child’s age, sex, and distal factors (mother’s education, ethnicity, place of residence and ecological zone)
  2. Model 2: In addition to model 2, adjusted intermediate factors (mother’s age at delivery, birth interval, mother’s BMI, Mother’s height, size of family, number of children in family, access to safe water, and access to hygienic toilet)
  3. Model 3: In addition to model 3, adjusted for proximal factors (birth order, diarrhea within past 2 weeks and initiation of breastfeeding within first hour after birth)
  4. OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  5. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001