Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample distribution and prevalence of Stunting among under five year children; the Democratic Republic of Congo 2013–14

From: Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14

Characteristics Sample Moderate Severe Total Stunting(<−2SD)
% n Stunting % Stunting % % 95% CI
Age      p < 0.001  
  < 6 months 10.8 976 8 6.7 14.7 [12.0,17.7]
 6–11 months 9.8 888 9.9 13.2 23.1 [18.9,27.8]
 12–23 months 18.9 1707 21.4 17.7 39.1 [35.9,42.3]
 24–35 months 20.4 1840 23.4 26.8 50.2 [47.1,53.4]
 36–47 months 19.7 1783 24.7 29.3 54.0 [50.7,57.3]
 48–59 months 20.4 1838 23.2 28.9 52.1 [48.8,55.3]
 Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
Sex      p < 0.01  
 Male 50.0 4517 20.4 24.9 45.2 [43.2,47.3]
 Female 50.0 4513 20.1 20.1 40.2 [38.2,42.2]
 Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
Distal factors
 Mother's education      p < 0.001  
  None 19.7 1641 20.1 30.6 50.8 [47.5,54.0]
  Primary 43.7 3632 21.3 25.8 47.1 [44.8,49.4]
  Secondary 35.4 2945 20.1 13.1 33.2 [30.9,35.6]
  Higher 1.2 97 9.8 3.3 13.1 [7.3,22.5]
  Total 100 8315 20.5 22.0 42.5 [41.0,44.0]
 Wealth quintile      p < 0.001  
  Richest 16.1 1456 14.0 9.0 22.9 [20.2,26.0]
  Richer 18.5 1671 20.4 21.0 41.4 [37.9,45.0]
  Middle 20.4 1843 22.3 23.5 45.8 [42.6,49.0]
  Poorer 22.4 2018 22.2 26.1 48.3 [45.1,51.5]
  Poorest 22.6 2042 20.8 28.8 49.7 [46.9,52.5]
  Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
 Residence      p < 0.001  
  Urban 30.2 2728 18.7 13.8 32.5 [30.3,34.7]
  Rural 69.8 6302 20.9 26.2 47.2 [45.4,49.0]
  Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
Intermediate factors
 Mothers age at delivery      p = 0.084  
   < 20 years 14.5 1307 24.0 22.5 46.5 [43.0,50.1]
  20–34 years 63.2 5704 19.9 22.0 41.9 [40.1,43.7]
   > =35 years 22.4 2020 18.9 23.8 42.6 [39.6,45.7]
  Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
 Mother’s body mass index      p < 0.001  
  Thin 11.8 944 22.7 22.8 45.4 [41.0,50.0]
  Normal 72.6 5829 20.8 23.3 44.1 [42.4,45.9]
  Overweight 15.6 1252 17.4 15.7 33.1 [29.5,36.8]
  Total 100 8025 20.5 22.0 42.6 [41.1,44.1]
 Birth interval      p < 0.001  
  First Birth 18.1 1470 21.9 19.1 41.0 [37.7,44.4]
   < 24 months 21.6 1755 18.9 29.4 48.3 [44.9,51.8]
  24–47 months 47.35 3856 21.3 21.1 42.4 [40.3,44.6]
  48 months or more 13.1 1063 17.8 17.0 34.7 [30.9,38.8]
  Total 100 8143 20.4 22.0 42.4 [40.9,43.9]
 Family size      p = 0.532  
  Small(<4) 22.3 1711 21.6 20.3 41.8 [38.7,45.1]
  Medium (4–6 members) 17.0 1303 19.3 21.7 41.0 [37.4,44.6]
  Large (>8 members) 60.7 4660 19.2 24.0 43.2 [41.2,45.2]
  Total 100 7674 19.7 22.8 42.5 [41.0,44.06]
 Number of Children      p < 0.5  
  1 20.0 1806 22.0 17.5 39.5 [36.5,42.7]
  2 44.6 4028 20.7 23.2 43.9 [41.7,46.1]
  3 26.5 2394 19.2 25.5 44.7 [41.9,47.5]
  4 or more 0.9 79 17.7 21.6 39.3 [34.6,44.2]
  Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
 Access to safe water   0    p < 0.001  
  No 70.6 6372 21.5 25.0 46.5 [44.8,48.1]
  Yes 29.4 2658 17.3 16.4 33.8 [31.4,36.6]
  Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
 Access to hygienic toilet   0    p < 0.001  
  No 96.5 8717 20.6 23.1 43.7 [42.2,45.2]
  Hygienic 3.5 313 10.1 5.5 15.6 [11.0,21.6]
  Total 100 9030 20.2 22.5 42.7 [41.3,44.2]
Proximal factors
 Birth order      p = 0.113  
  1 18.0 1476 21.9 19.1 41.0 [37.7,44.4]
  2 16.5 1352 20.5 19.2 39.7 [36.3,43.3]
   > =3 65.5 5363 20.0 23.5 43.6 [41.7,45.5]
  Total 100 8192 20.5 22.1 42.5 [41.0,44.0]
 Had Diarrhoea      p = 0.441  
  No 82.4 6691 20.6 22.2 42.8 [41.2,44.5]
  Yes 17.6 1430 19.8 21.4 41.2 [37.7,44.9]
  Total 100 8121 20.5 22.0 42.5 [41.0,44.0]
 Breastfeeding within first hour      p = 0.120  
  No 55.6 4459 22.1 21.5 43.6 [41.6,45.7]
  Yes 44.4 3566 18.3 22.9 41.2 [39.0,43.4]
  Total 100 8025 20.4 22.1 42.5 [41.0,44.1]
  1. p p-value using chi-square test, CI confidence interval