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Table 2 Highlights of policy influences on MNHFP + A quality of care in India

From: Putting women at the center: a review of Indian policy to address person-centered care in maternal and newborn health, family planning and abortion

1991 Structural Adjustment Programme launched in the economy – curtailed public social expenditure; leads to rise in private sector health investment in India
Quality concerns voiced on growing unregulated private health sector
1992 Launch of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme; setting up First Referral Units for emergency obstetric care
1992–93 First National Family Health Survey held in India – collects in-depth data on maternal and child health
1994–96 The UN Conferences on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994) and Women and Development (Beijing, 1996) held – rise of reproductive rights movement
India adopts target-free and RCH approach in 1995; RCH programme introduces integrated MCH, family planning and reproductive health services
Quality concerns voiced increasingly but no action strategies formulated
2000–2005 National Population Policy (2000) outlines RCH strategy & sets specific IMR & MMR reduction goals
Quality focus in tenth and eleventh plans with strategies for quality assurance & appraisal, including setting up of National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers (NABH).
2005 NRHM/RCH-II launched, leading to expanded funding and decentralized programme implementation
Quality focus and action strategies in both programmes along with regular monitoring & feedback mechanisms.
Quality initiatives include Indian Public Health Standards for quality assurance in primary care; Quality Assurance Committees at district/State level under RCH-II & assistance to states by NABH for quality certification.