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Table 3 Identified IFs and BCTs recommended in policy papers

From: National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

Intervention function N (%)
Education 27 (23) Persuasion 15 (13) Incentivization 6 (5) Coercion 2 (2) Training 2 (2) Restriction 5 (4) Env. restructuring 34 (29) Modelling 1 (1) Enablement 24 (20) Total 116 (100%)
BCTs Examples N (%)
Goal-setting (behaviour) Goals and actions are recorded in personal health plans in order of importance. 3 (2)
Goal-setting (outcome) Goals and actions are recorded in personal health plans in order of importance. 1 (1)
Action-planning Employees are given a copy of the personal health plan. 2 (1)
Discrepancy between current behaviour and goal Pointing out the discrepancy between current behaviour and important goals for the patient is aimed at. 3 (2)
Behavioural contract Goals and actions are recorded in personal health plans in order of importance. 1 (1)
Monitoring of behavioura Achievement of goals needs to be monitored. 3 (2)
Feedback on behaviour Monitoring and evaluation of employee lifestyle choices. 3 (2)
Self-monitoringa Customers are supported in self-monitoring. 1 (1)
Self-monitoring of behaviour For example, a food diary can be used for planning, following, and monitoring a diet. 4 (2)
Social support (unspecified) Encouragement to make health promoting choices. 18 (11)
Social support (emotional) The patient is not criticized but understanding for their reactions is shown and emotions are accepted. 4 (2)
Instructions on how to perform the behaviour Information can be given by presenting model meals that are compiled of day supply. 20 (12)
Information about antecedents Factors and resources supporting the change are identified. 1 (1)
Information about health consequences Physically active lifestyle and healthy nutrition are highlighted as a part of health and well-being. 11 (7)
Demonstration of the behaviour Supervisors, lead by example. 2 (1)
Prompts/cues The heart symbol helps to select suitable foods for the recommended diet. 3 (2)
Behavioural practice/rehearsal For example, selecting healthy foods can be rehearsed in practice. 7 (4)
Behaviour substitution Instead of sitting, various activities can be done while standing or lightly moving. Lunch, coffee breaks and screen work also work well while standing. 2 (1)
Habit formation Continue to conduct the change persistently, because new habits turn into practice within couple of weeks or months. 5 (3)
Habit reversal Change your daily routines one by one so that you reduce sedentary behaviour and take breaks during long sedentary periods. 1 (1)
Generalization of target behaviour Change your daily routines one by one so that you reduce sedentary behaviour and take breaks during long sedentary periods. 1 (1)
Material incentive A tax-free compensation for commuting by bicycling paid by the employer. 4 (2)
Social reward Monitoring and evaluation of employee’s lifestyle choices. 1 (1)
Reduce negative emotions Change your routines one by one. Keep changing persistently. Be moderate in everything. Heavy work might warrant a rest by sitting or even lying down. 3 (2)
Restructuring the physical environment Healthiness of catering for meetings is important to take into account. 38 (24)
Restructuring the social environment Write down rules for reduction and breaking of sedentary behaviour together with different stakeholders in the work community. 11 (7)
Avoidance of exposure to cues for the behaviour Avoidance of exposure to unnecessary temptations (e.g.energyintensive snack foods are not purchased for the home). 1 (1)
Adding objects to the environment Local actors enhance opportunities for varying work postures by activating furniture and equipment. 4 (2)
Identification of self as role model Seminar organizer may encourage the audience into standing ovation - you can be the Trendsetter too! 2 (1)
Incompatible beliefs Pointing out the discrepancy between current behaviour and important values for the patient is aimed at. 1 (1)
Verbal persuasion about capability Identification and reinforcement of personal strengths are aimed at. Positive aspects and even small advances are always identified first. 2 (1)
Total number of observed BCTs   163 (100%)
  1. Numbers are frequencies. Numbers in parentheses are percentages. aMore general formulation than in BCT Taxonomy (v1)