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Table 1 Characteristics of the 23 included studies

From: Community-based initiatives improving critical health literacy: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative evidence

Ref Study (year) Study aim Target population; study setting Actors participating in the study Data collection methods Pre-dominant theme
co-learning social support
General older adult population
25 Hamrosi Bpharm et al. (2014) To explore needs and expectations regarding written information of medicines, and to determine related barriers and facilitators People who had taken at least one medicine prescription in the last 12 months, aged 21–80; New South Wales, Australia priority community, researchers focus groups   X
26 O’Brien et al. (2011) To explore the concept of elder abuse by engaging with older people living in the community Older adults, aged 65–89;
Ireland and Northern Ireland
older adults, practitioner, community worker, researchers focus groups   X
27 Punnaraj et al. (2010) To develop a community health care model for providing care to older adults Older adults, aged 60+;
Northeast Thailand
older adults, family members, community leaders, nurses, health care volunteers, local government officials, researchers interviews, participatory observations, focus groups X X
28 Sanders et al. (2006) To develop and evaluate an education programme to help older people find out about treatment and care choices at the end of life Older adults;Sheffield, UK voluntary community advisors representing older adults, community members, researchers workshops X  
29 Valokivi (2004) To explore citizenship in the local health care and social service system Older adults who received care, aged 80–94;
rural middle sized municipality in Finland
older adults, informal caregivers(relatives), researcher semi-structured interviews   X
30 Ward (2014) To explore how older people learn to sustain their own and others’ well-being Older adults, aged 60–97; UK older adults, voluntary sector manager, researchers interviews, focus groups   X
Older adults with a (risk of) disease
31 Adili et al. (2013) To explore the ways in which women learned to live with type 2 diabetes Women with diabetes, aged 55–82;
Newcastle, Australia
older women, family members, researcher Interviews, informal conversations, discussion groups X X
32 Espenschied et al. (2012) To explore the needs for post genetic-cancer-risk-assessment of patients with increased risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer Women with increased cancer risk, aged 26–74;
Hope, USA
older women, family members, professionals, field experts, clinical researchers Interactive conference X X
33 Evans et al. (2007) To identify key messages about pre-diabetes, and to develop an educational toolkit to address the information needs of patients and health care professionals Patients with (pre-) diabetes, aged 48–79, and health professionals;
urban and rural areas in UK
(pre-) diabetes patients, health professionals, diabetes experts, researchers focus groups, interviews, videotaped consultations X X
Ethnic minorities and migrants
34 Andrews et al. (2007) To develop a culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention with public housing neighborhoods African American residents of public housing neighborhoods; Augusta-Richmond county, Georgia, USA neighborhood residents, community health workers, community advisory board, researchers neighborhood surveys, focus groups, interviews X  
35 Balbale et al. (2014) To develop culturally tailored health messages by using visual and participatory action techniques Mexican females, aged 65+;
Chicago, USA
Mexican older women, researchers photo-elicitation, in-depth interviews, focus groups X X
36 Boise et al. (2013) To explore perceptions regarding health needs and barriers to health care African immigrants and refugees, aged 14–67;
Portland, USA
African immigrants and refugees, family members, service providers, researchers informal conversations, community meeting, house meetings   X
37 Collier et al. (2012) To identify mental health needs and ideal service delivery systems of/for a Hmong community Laos Hmong community, aged 18–70;
Eau Claire, USA
Hmong community members, Hmong professionals, community service providers, researchers focus groups, key informant interviews   X
38 Cusack et al. (2013) To explore knowledge, use and experiences of over-the-counter analgesics Aboriginal community, aged 20–80;
north-west Adelaide, Australia
Aboriginal community, Aboriginal Elder, researchers focus groups, interviews X X
39 Holkup et al. (2007) To prevent elder abuse by an elder focused, family centered, community-based conference Native American older adults;
northwestern community in USA
older adults, family members, community members, spiritual leader, health and social service providers, researchers Family Care Conference X  
40 Petrucka et al. (2007) To explore capacity building and cultural competency in health professional education and health-care delivery Two Saskatchewan Aboriginal communities;
southern Saskatchewan, Canada
community members, Aboriginal Elders, researchers hearing circles X  
41 Zanjani and Rowles (2012) To increase knowledge on mental health and aging, and to explore culturally appropriateness of interventions on mental health-related topics Older adults, aged 65+; rural Appalachian-Kentucky, USA community members, professional community liaisons, researchers focus groups X X
Ethnic minorities and migrants with a disease
42 Braun et al. (2002) To examine cancer experiences, including the impact of fatalistic attitudes, access to healthcare, and culturally linked values Native Hawaiians who survived cancer, aged 36–86;
Hawai, USA
cancer patients, native Hawaiian social worker, native Hawaiian co-investigator, native Hawaiian clinicians, researchers focus groups   X
43 Carlson et al. (2006) To explore how communities use and value the internet and libraries for health information African Americans with and without diabetes, aged 60+; Charleston and Georgetown counties, USA community members, faith community, public librarians, diabetes advocacy group, rural community center staff, information technology community members survey, focus groups X X
44 Eggly et al. (2013) To develop a communication tool to address racial disparities in cancer care Black African-American cancer patients, aged 40+;
southeast Michigan, USA
cancer patients, community advisory committee, representatives of community health organizations, oncologists, researchers semi-structured interviews X X
45 Grigg-Saito et al. (2008) To eliminate health disparities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes by increasing knowledge, access to health care and awareness of health care beliefs Cambodian older adult refugees, aged 50+; Lowell, USA Cambodian community, community leaders and elders, health providers, human services staff, government agency staff, researchers surveys, focus groups X  
46 Kieffer et al. (2004) To reduce disparities in diabetes by reducing the prevalence and impact of diabetes and its risk factors African-American and Latino community members, aged 8–76;
eastside and southwest Detroit, USA
community members, family members, community-based organizations staff, policy makers, health system developers, community health center staff, researchers focus groups X X
47 Pierre-Louis et al. (2011) To understand experiences of people with diabetes and to envision new patterns of health African American women with diabetes, aged 35–68; urban community, USA African American women with diabetes, nursing students, researcher Interviews   X