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Table 3 Odds of HPV Vaccine series completion (receipt of ≥3 doses) among of Male Adolescents 13 to 17 Years of age for Individual-level and area-based measures: National Immunization Survey–Teen, 2012-2013

From: Area-based socioeconomic factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teen boys in the United States

  HPV vaccine series completion a   
Characteristics Undadjustedb,cOR (95%CI) Individual-level only, (Model 1) AOR a, b(95% CI) Individual-level + ZCTA racial composition + ZCTA population density (Model 2), AOR a, b (95% CI) Individual-level + ZCTA poverty, + ZCTA population density (Model 3), AOR a, b (95% CI)
Individual-level variables
 Teens Age
  13 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  14 1.04 (0.89, 1.21) 1.06 (0.91, 1.25) 1.08 (0.92, 1.27) 1.05 (0.90, 1.24)
  15 1.32 (1.14, 1.52)* 1.50 (1.29, 1.75)** 1.48 (1.27, 1.73)** 1.48 (1.27, 1.73)**
  16 1.09 (0.84, 1.27) 1.16 (0.99, 1.37) 1.16 (0.98, 1.36) 1.15 (0.98, 1.35)
  17 1.27 (1.10, 1.48)* 1.48 (1.26, 1.74)** 1.46 (1.24, 1.71)** 1.45 (1.23, 1.70)**
 Mother’s marital status
  Married Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Not married 1.11 (1.01, 1.22)* 0.93 (0.83, 1.04) 0.94 (0.84, 1.05) 0.93 (0.83, 1.04)
 Type of insurance coverage insurance
  No insurance 0.65 (0.52, 0.81)* 0.60 (0.47, 0.76)** 0.59 (0.46, 0.76)** 0.59 (0.46, 0.75)**
  Employer or union Ref Ref Ref Ref
  SCHIP or Medicaid 1.69 (1.52, 1.87)** 1.37 (1.18, 1.59)** 1.38 (1.18, 1.60)** 1.36 (1.17, 1.58)**
  IHS, military, other 1.35 (1.16, 1.56)** 1.27 (1.08, 1.49)* 1.30 (1.10, 1.53)* 1.25 (1.06, 1.47)*
 Mother’s education, years
   < 12 years 1.90 (167, 2.16)** 1.73 (1.45, 2.07)** 1.77 (1.48, 2.13)** 1.69 (1.41, 2.03)**
  12 years 0.95 (0.83, 1.07) 0.90 (0.77, 1.05) 0.91 (0.78, 1.07) 0.90 (0.77, 1.05)
   > 12 years, non-college graduate 0.88 (0.78, 1.00) 0.90 (0.78, 1.04) 0.92 (0.79, 1.05) 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)
  College graduate Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Poverty status
  Above poverty, >$75,000 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Above poverty, ≤$75,000 1.08 (0.96, 1.21) 0.99 (0.86, 1.14) 0.99 (0.85, 1.14) 0.10 (0.86, 1.15)
  Below poverty 1.58 (1.40, 1.79)** 1.11 (0.93, 1.34) 1.13 (0.93, 1.36) 1.11 (0.92, 1.34)
  Unknown poverty status 1.21 (0.96, 1.53) 0.91 (0.70, 1.19) 0.90 (0.69, 1.18) 0.90 (0.69, 1.17)
 Race/ethnicity of teen
  Hispanic 2.19 (1.95, 2.46)** 1.95 (1.70, 2.24)** 1.89 (1.62, 2.19)** 1.86 (1.61, 2.15)**
  Non-Hispanic White Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Non-Hispanic Black 1.44 (1.24, 1.66)** 1.26 (1.08, 1.48)* 1.21 (1.01, 1.44)* 1.19 (1.01, 1.40)*
  Non-Hispanic other and multiple race 1.24 (1.03, 1.48)* 1.22 (1.01, 1.47)* 1.24 (1.03, 1.51)* 1.20 (0.10, 1.45)
 Received provider recommendation to get HPV vaccine
  Yes 6.59 (5.89, 7.36)** 6.53 (5.83, 7.33)** 6.60 (5.89, 7.42)** 6.53 (5.82, 7.33)**
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Don’t know 2.20 (1.78, 2.71)** 2.19 (1.77, 2.70)** 2.20 (1.77, 2.73)** 2.19 (1.78, 2.71)**
ZCTA Area-based measures
 Racial composition (50% + of that group)
  Hispanic 1.88 (1.62, 2.19) 0.98 (0.81, 1.18) ---
  Mixed 1.58 (1.38, 1.81) 1.16 (0.99, 1.36) ---
  Non-Hispanic Black 1.23 (1.00, 1.51) 0.99 (0.78, 1.23) ---
  Non-Hispanic White Ref Ref Ref
  Non-Hispanic other 0.60 (0.32, 1.14) 0.27 (0.14, 0.54)* ---
 Poverty (% below poverty) d
  0-4.99%, least impoverished Ref Ref
  5-9.9% 1.08 (0.92, 1.28) 1.09 (0.92, 1.30)
  10-19.9% 1.08 (0.92, 1.27) 1.05 (0.88, 1.25)
  20 + %, poorest 1.58 (1.34, 1.86)** 1.22 (1.01, 1.48)*
 Population density quartiles (people per sqr mile)
  1, lowest density) 1-20 per sq. mile Ref Ref Ref
  2. 21-71 persons per sq. mile 0.71 (1.00, 0.50) 0.60 (0.42, 0.86)* 0.61 (0.42, 0.86)*
  3. 72-651 persons per sq. mile 1.19 (0.88, 1.62) 1.01 (0.73, 1.39) 1.02 (0.74, 1.40)
  4. highest density > 651 person per sq. mile 1.34 (0.99, 1.82)   0.95 (0.69, 1.30) 0.95 (0.69, 1.30)
  Q4 vs Q2 1.90 (1.55, 2.32)**   1.57 (1.27, 1.94)** 1.57 (1.27, 1.94)**
  Q4 vs Q3 1.13 (1.01, 1.26)*   0.94 (083, 1.06) 0.93 (0.83, 1.05)
 Residence type
  1. Isolated Small Rural T Ref  
  2. Small Rural Town 1.05 (0.61, 1.80)  
  3. Large Rural Town 1.25 (0.77, 2.01  
  4. Urban focused 1.92 (1.26, 2.92)*  
  1. Note CI confidence interval, HPV human papillomavirus, IHS Indian Health, SCHIP State Children’s Health Insurance Program, Ref Reference, AOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. *P < .05; **P < .0001
  3. a completion= > = 3 doses
  4. b Unadjusted odds and models 1-3 were weighted based on sampling weight and also included state random effects. The sample size was n = 19,188
  5. c Multivariable models 1-3 include all of the variables without dashes (—) and also include the variables, marital status, mother’s age, survey year, and teen’s current age in years and state random effects
  6. d Poverty status was based on the US Census poverty thresholds for 2012 and 2013