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Table 1 Individual-level and area-based characteristics of HPV Vaccine Initiation (Receipt of at Least One Dose) and completion (receipt of ≥3 doses): Teen Boys Aged 13 to 17 based on responses from the National Immunization Survey–Teen, 2012-2013

From: Area-based socioeconomic factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teen boys in the United States

Characteristics Survey Participants, n weighted % Weighted % (95% CI), Vaccine Initiation (≥ 1 dose) P-value Weighted % (95% CI), Vaccine Completion (≥3 doses) P-value
Total 19,518 27.9 (26.6 - 29.2)   10.38 (9.48 – 11.29)  
Year <.0001   <.0001
 2012 10,265 20.8 (19.24 – 22.35)   6.79 (5.84-7.74  
 2013 9253 35.26 (33.23 – 37.29)   13.64 (12.24-15.05)  
Individual-level variables
 Age 0.7461   0.2899
  13 3942 (19.99) 26.4 (23.58 - 29.23)   9.11 (7.48 – 10.74)  
  14 4117 (20.54) 28.26 (25.35 – 31.18)   9.38 (7.47 – 11.29)  
  15 3884 (20.63) 28.09 (25.38 – 30.80)   11.52 (9.38 – 13.67)  
  16 3911 (19.66) 28.50 (25.79 – 31.20)   9.66 (7.85 – 11.46)  
  17 3664 (19.18) 26.58 (23.77 – 29.39)   11.18 (9.21 – 13.15)  
 Mother’s marital status <.001   < .3775
  Married 14,314 (65.46) 25.39 (23.94-26.84)   9.88 (8.85 – 10.91)  
  Not married 5204 (34.54) 31.72 (29.40 – 34.05)   10.71 (9.20 – 12.21)  
 Mother’s age, years <.0002   <.1853
   < = 34 1590 (9.77) 34.55 (30.46 – 38.65)   11.58 (8.93 – 14.23)  
  35 TO 44 8112 (46.59) 28.09 (26.11 – 30.07)   9.36 (8.11 – 10.61)  
   > = 45 9816 (43.64) 25.47 (23.78 – 27.16)   10.71 (9.42 – 12.01)  
 Type of insurance coverage <.0001   <.0001
  No insurance 1269 (8.43) 25.9 (21.22-30.59)   5.73 (3.91-7.54)  
  Employer or union 10,645 (45.86) 21.45 (20.03-22.87)   8.34 (7.31-9.37)  
  SCHIP or Medicaid 4957 (33.39) 35.91 (33.34-38.48)   13.39 (11.56-15.22)  
  IHS, military, other 2647 (12.32) 28.96 (25.43-32.48)   11.29 (8.72-13.86)  
 Mother’s education, years <.0001   < .0001
   < 12 years 2012 (13.93) 40.97 (35.79-44.15)   17.02 (13.63-20.41)  
  12 years 3615 (24.97) 27.94 (25.08-30.79)   9.09 (7.29-10.90)  
   > 12 years, non-college graduate 5451 (25.69) 22.26 (20.14-24.39)   8.29 (6.79-9.78))  
  College graduate 8440 (35.41) 25.92 (24.20-27.63)   9.59 (8.54-10.65)  
 Poverty Status <.0001   <.0034
  Above poverty, Annual Income >$75,000 8574 (33.48) 22.86 (21.31-24.42)   8.93 (7.89-9.98)  
  Above poverty, Annual Income ≤$75,000 7165 (38.07) 24.85 (22.82-26.88)   9.35 (7.91-10.79)  
  Below poverty 3225 (24.16) 37.93 (34.92-40.95)   13.10 (11.12-15.08)  
  Unknown poverty status 554 (4.29) 30.29 (22.48-38.10)   10.56 (4.29-16.83)  
 Race/ethnicity of teen <.0001   <.0001
  Hispanic 2748 (22.18) 40.75 (37.11-44.40)   16.14 (13.30-18.97)  
  Non-Hispanic White 13,050 (55.23) 20.67 (19.50-21.85)   7.73 (6.95-8.51)  
  Non-Hispanic Black 1860 (13.93) 34.26 (30.58-37.93)   10.46 (8.29-12.63)  
  Non-Hispanic other + multiple race 1860 (8.66) 27.13 (23.55-30.71)   9.95 (7.79-12.10)  
 Received provider recommendation to get HPV vaccine <.0001   <.0001
  Yes 7121 (35.01) 53.66 (51.48-55.83)   21.09 (19.20-22.98)  
  No 10,793 (57.49) 12.21 (10.90-13.52)   3.86 (3.05-4.67)  
  Don’t Know 1399 (7.50) 25.18 (21.11-29.24)   8.68 (6.07-11.29)  
Healthcare system factor
 Facility types for teen’s providers <.8268   <.8739
  All public facilities 2722 (14.44) 26.58 (22.86 – 30.31)   9.26 (6.64-11.87)  
  All hospital facilities 1884 (8.18) 28.97 (24.67 – 33.27)   10.23 (7.79 – 12.67)  
  All private facilities 9086 (50.77) 27.26 (25.57 – 28.96)   10.44 (9.25 – 11.62)  
  Mixed & STD/school/teen clinics or other facilities 5250 (23.53) 28.64 (26.17 – 31.12)   9.88 (8.44 – 11.32)  
  Unknown 496 (3.08) 28.28 (19.44 – 37.12)   13.01 (4.49 – 21.53)  
ZCTA area-based measures
 Racial Composition (50% + of specific race/ethnic group) <.0001   <.0002
  Hispanic 1150 (10.24) 47.13 (41.30-52.97)   16.58 (11.93-21.22)  
  Mixed 1783 (12.34) 33.02 (28.80-37.24)   13.66 (10.84-16.48)  
  Non-Hispanic Black 1083 (5.95) 33.27 (28.83-37.71)   9.88 (7.06-12.71)  
  Non-Hispanic White 15,155 (70.61) 23.23 (22.03-24.43)   8.69 (7.86-9.51)  
  Non-Hispanic other 245 (0.85) 36.12 (15.79-56.46)   6.26 (2.35-10.16)  
 Poverty (% below poverty) <.0001   <.0217
  0-4.99% low 2981 (13.47) 24.36 (21.58-27.13)   9.01 (7.01-11.02)  
  5-9.9% 5192 (25.16) 25.54 (23.30-27.78)   9.52 (8.07-10.98)  
  10-19.9% 7170 (36.44) 25.32 (23.20-27.44)   9.14 (7.82-10.46)  
  20 + %, high 4070 (24.93) 34.76 (31.96-37.57)   12.92 (10.78 -5.06)  
 Population density quartiles (people per square mile) <.0001   <.0001
  Q1 1-20 (lowest density) 1472 (3.25) 19.32 (15.53-23.12)   8.10 (5.08-11.12)  
  Q2 21-71 2516 (10.29) 20.41 (17.11-23.72)   5.63 (3.99-7.28)  
  Q3 72-651 5504 (26.97) 23.44 (21.24-25.65)   9.44 (7.79-11.09)  
  Q4 > 651 (highest density) 9924 (59.49) 31.17 (29.44-32.91)   11.38 (10.21-12.56)  
 Residence type <.0001   <.0001
  Isolated Small Rural Town 964 (2.32) 17.34 (13.51-21.16)   5.31 (3.33-7.30)  
  Small Rural Town 938 (3.07) 18.70 (13.94-23.45)   5.50 (3.32-7.67)  
  Large Rural Town 1715 (5.66) 18.55 (15.63-21.47)   6.45 (4.69-8.21)  
  Urban focused 15,799 (88.95) 28.74 (27.38-30.11)   10.68 (9.74-11.63)  
  1. Note. CI confidence interval, HPV human papillomavirus, IHS Indian Health, SCHIP State Children’s Health Insurance Program; Frequencies (n) were not weighted; Percent’s weighted based on sampling weight
  2. aPoverty status was based on the US Census poverty thresholds for 2012 and 2013