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Table 3 Association between cause-specific mortality and sex, individual education, contextual deprivation and time to health care

From: Associations of cause-specific mortality with area level deprivation and travel time to health care in France from 1990 to 2007, a multilevel analysis

Variables Cerebrovascular Diseases Ischemic Heart Diseases All Tumors Amenable Diseases Preventable Diseases
HR HR HR HR HR
Men ref ref ref ref ref
Women 0.61*** 0.37*** 0.43*** 0.59*** 0.31***
Individual effects
 Upper and post-secondary ref ref ref ref ref
 Lower secondary 1.27*** 1.30*** 1.28*** 1.26*** 1.44***
 Completed elementary 1.41*** 1.46*** 1.29*** 1.39*** 1.57***
 Incompleted elementary 1.71*** 1.62*** 1.47*** 1.72*** 1.99***
Contextual Effects
 Area Deprivation
  Q1 (least deprived) ref ref ref ref ref
  Q2 1.06 1.11 1.04 1.05 1.04
  Q3 1.08 1.14* 1.10* 1.08 1.13*
  Q4 1.07 1.22** 1.12** 1.11* 1.13*
  Q5 1.21** 1.29*** 1.14*** 1.20*** 1.24***
  Trend 1.10** 1.15*** 1.07*** 1.12*** 1.13***
Travel time to health care
 Q1 (shortest time) ref   ref ref ref ref
 Q2 0.98   0.88* 0.98 0.93 0.94
 Q3 1.15*   1.04 0.90** 0.97 0.93
 Q4 1.11   1.01 0.90** 0.93 0.92
 Q5 1.05   0.90 0.83*** 0.88** 0.80***
 Trend 0.98   0.95* 0.93*** 0.95*** 0.91***
 Spatial Variance (ZE94) 0.003 0.007 0.006 0.010 0.017
  1. The Trend is estimated from a separate model in which the concerned contextual effect has been introduced as a linear effect (log-linear). The displayed trend effect is the linear effect multiplied by the mean score difference between the fifth and the first quintile
  2. HR Hazard Ratio, Q ordered population-weighted quintile
  3. *p-value <0.050, **p-value <0.010, ***p-value <0.001
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