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Table 2 Association between all-cause mortality and sex, individual education, contextual deprivation and time to health care

From: Associations of cause-specific mortality with area level deprivation and travel time to health care in France from 1990 to 2007, a multilevel analysis

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Model 7 Model 8
HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR
Individual effects
 Men ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Women 0.49*** 0.48*** 0.49*** 0.49*** 0.48*** 0.48*** 0.49*** 0.48***
 Upper and post-secondary   ref    ref ref   ref
 Lower secondary   1.31***    1.31*** 1.31***   1.31***
 Completed elementary   1.42***    1.42*** 1.42***   1.42***
 Incompleted elementary   1.75***    1.74*** 1.75***   1.75***
Contextual Effects
 Area Deprivation
  Q1 (least deprived)    ref   ref   ref ref
  Q2    1.05   1.01   1.08* 1.05
  Q3    1.08**   1.02   1.14*** 1.09**
  Q4    1.13***   1.04   1.19*** 1.13***
  Q5    1.17***   1.06*   1.26*** 1.17***
  Trend    1.10***   1.05***   1.15*** 1.10***
Travel time to health care
 Q1 (shortest time)     ref   ref ref ref
 Q2     0.99   0.97 0.96 0.95
 Q3     1.04   0.98 0.96 0.93*
 Q4     1.05   0.98 0.94 0.91**
 Q5     0.98   0.91** 0.87*** 0.84***
 Trend     0.98   0.93*** 0.89*** 0.87***
 Spatial Variance (ZE94) 0.013 0.011 0.010 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.008 0.008
  1. The Trend is estimated from a separate model in which the concerned contextual effect has been introduced as a linear effect (log-linear). The displayed trend effect is the linear effect multiplied by the mean score difference between the fifth and the first quintile
  2. HR Hazard Ratio. Q ordered population-weighted quintile
  3. *p-value <0.050, **p-value <0.010, ***p-value <0.001
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