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Table 4 Results of parameters equivalence constraints for effects of other-oriented and self-oriented volunteering on health outcomesa

From: Volunteering and health benefits in general adults: cumulative effects and forms

  Health Outcomes Other-oriented
volunteering
Self-oriented
volunteering
Difference in betasb Wald X2
β (SE) β (SE)
1 Mental health .082 (.027) .063 (.027) .019 9.237**
2 Physical health .087 (.028) .069 (.028) .018 13.797***
3 Life satisfaction .071 (.017) .036 (.017) .035 4.139*
4 Social well-being .106 (.021) .053 (.021) .053 9.735***
5 Depression −.044 (.018) −.021 (.018) .023 .029
  1. aThe socio-demographic variables adjusted in the multivariate linear regression models were also controlled in the parameters equivalence constraints model
  2. bDifference in Betas is simply (βother-orientedβself-oriented); β = regression beta; SE = stand error
  3. *p < .05
  4. **p < .01
  5. ***p < .001