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Table 1 Frequency and proportion of respondents reporting policies or programme activities by socioeconomic indicator quartiles

From: Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

  Income level groups n (% group)
  Low
N = 14
Lower middle
N = 34
Upper middle
N = 33
High
N = 38
p-valueǂ
National strategy or plan 4 (29) 13 (38) 13 (39) 14 (37) <0.001
Routine surveillance 6 (43) 25 (74) 30 (91) 38 (100) <0.001
Awareness campaign 3 (21) 18 (53) 17 (52) 15 (40) <0.001
Prevention in healthcare settings 5 (36) 17 (50) 29 (88) 33 (87) <0.001
Health worker vaccination 2 (25) 15 (60) 27 (87) 33 (97) <0.001
  Human Development Index groups n (% group)
  Low
N = 21
Lower middle
N = 28
Upper middle
N = 33
High
N = 37
p-valueǂ
National strategy or plan 4 (19) 14 (50) 12 (36) 14 (38) <0.001
Routine surveillance 8 (38) 22 (79) 32 (97) 37 (100) <0.001
Awareness campaign 8 (38) 12 (43) 16 (49) 17 (46) <0.001
Prevention in healthcare settings 7 (33) 17 (61) 26 (79) 34 (92) <0.001
Health worker vaccination 2 (20) 16 (64) 25 (89) 34 (97) <0.001
  Health expenditure groups n (% group)
  Low
N = 25
Lower middle
N = 30
Upper middle
N = 28
High
N = 36
p-valueǂ
National strategy or plan 6 (24) 14 (47) 10 (36) 14 (39) <0.001
Routine surveillance 12 (48) 25 (83) 26 (93) 36 (100) <0.001
Awareness campaign 7 (28) 18 (60) 13 (46) 15 (42) <0.001
Prevention in healthcare settings 7 (28) 22 (73) 24 (86) 31 (86) <0.001
Health worker vaccination 6 (40) 16 (64) 24 (92) 31 (97) <0.001
  Physician density groups n (% group)
  Low
N = 19
Lower middle
N = 28
Upper middle
N = 34
High
N = 38
p-valueǂ
National strategy or plan 4 (21) 11 (39) 16 (47) 13 (34) <0.001
Routine surveillance 7 (37) 24 (86) 30 (88) 38 (100) <0.001
Awareness campaign 6 (32) 13 (46) 13 (38) 21 (55) <0.001
Prevention in healthcare settings 5 (26) 19 (68) 28 (82) 32 (84) <0.001
Health worker vaccination 3 (27) 18 (75) 25 (83) 31 (94) <0.001
  1. ǂMann-Whitney test